POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Avodah Zarah 8
1) ADDITIONAL REQUESTS IN PRAYER
(a) (Rav Yehudah): The Halachah is, one may request his needs
in 'Shome'a Tefilah'.
2) THEIR FESTIVALS
(b) (Rav Yehudah brei d'Rav Shmuel bar Shilas): Even though a
person may request his needs in 'Shome'a Tefilah', he may
add requests in each of the (13 middle) blessings at the
(c) (R. Chiya bar Ashi): Even though a person may request his
needs in 'Shome'a Tefilah', if someone in his family was
sick, he requests for him in the blessing for sick
people; if he needs sustenance, he requests in the
blessing of prosperity.
(d) (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Even though a person may request
his needs in 'Shome'a Tefilah', he may request at length
after Shemoneh Esreh, even like the confession of Yom
(a) (Mishnah - R. Meir): These are the festivals (for which
the three preceding days are forbidden): Kalandra,
Saturnura, Karteisim, the day of the king's Ginusiya
(coronation), the king's birthday, and the day (every
year) that the king's father died;
3) PERSONAL FESTIVALS
(b) Chachamim say, the day of death is an idolatrous festival
only if they burned his vessels.
(c) The day (Rashi - a Nochri; Ra'avad - the king) shaves his
beard, or his Bluris (a growth of hair which was only cut
once a year for the sake of idolatry), the day he arrived
from a sea voyage or left prison, or (Ra'avad - any
Nochri) that makes a feast in honor of his son's wedding,
only that day and that Nochri are forbidden.
(d) (Gemara - Rav Chanan bar Rava): Kalandra is an eight-day
festival after Tekufas Teves; Saturnura is an eight-day
festival before the Tekufah.
1. A way to remember this is "Achor va'Kedem Tzartani"
(the latter festival is listed first).
(e) (Beraisa): Adam ha'Rishon saw that the days were getting
shorter; he assumed that this was the death decreed on
account of his sin: the days would keep getting shorter,
until there would be permanent darkness, the world would
revert to emptiness.
1. He fasted and prayed for eight days; after the
Tekufah, he saw that the days were getting longer,
and realized that it is the nature of the world for
the days to get shorter and longer; he made an
(annual) eight-day festival.
(f) Question: We understand according to the opinion that
Adam was created in Tishrei - from the day he was
created, the days kept getting shorter;
2. The next year, he also made an annual festival of
the eight days he fasted and prayed before the
i. He fixed the festivals to praise Hash-m,
Nochrim made them idolatrous festivals.
1. But according to the opinion that Adam was created
in Nisan, he had seen that the days get longer and
(g) Answer: Before his sin, he never saw them get as short as
they are in winter.
(h) (Beraisa): On the day Adam was created, when the sun set;
he assumed that this was the death decreed on him: there
would be permanent darkness, the world would revert to
1. He and Chavah fasted and cried that night; when
morning came, he realized that such is the nature of
the world. He offered an ox that Hash-m had brought
up from the ground upright, its horns (Keranos)
before its feet (Perasos) - "Mi'Shor Par Makrin
(i) Question (Rav Masnah): If Rome celebrates Kalandra, and
the surrounding cities are subservient to Rome, may one
do business with them?
2. (Rav Yehudah): The ox that Adam offered had one horn
on its forehead - "Makrin".
3. Question: "Makrin" is a plural form!
4. Answer: It is written missing the 'Yud', suggesting
the singular (mi'Keren).
(j) Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Kalandra is forbidden
to all (Rashi; Rashba - to all who celebrate it);
(k) Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): The prohibition only applies to
those who celebrate it (Rashba - sincerely, i.e. Rome,
not the cities who celebrate because they fear Rome).
(l) Support #1 (for R. Yochanan - Beraisa): Rome celebrates
Kalandra, and the surrounding cities are subservient to
Rome, the prohibition only applies to those who (Rashba -
sincerely) celebrate it.
1. (Continuation of Beraisa): Saturnura, Karteisim, the
day of Ginusiya, the king's birthday, and the day
that the king's father died - before these festivals
is forbidden, after them is permitted;
2. The day a Nochri makes a feast in honor of his son's
wedding, only that day and that Nochri are
(a) Support #2 (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): ...The day he shaves his
beard, or his Bluris, the day he arrived from a sea
voyage or left prison, only that day and that Nochri are
1. Question: 'That day' excludes the days before and
after, but what does 'that Nochri' exclude?
(b) (Beraisa - R. Yishmael): Yisraelim in Chutz la'Aretz
serve idolatry unknowingly: a Nochri makes a feast in
honor of his son's wedding, and invites all the Yisraelim
in the city - even though they eat their own food and
drink, and a Yisrael serves them, the Torah considers
this an idolatrous feast - "V'Kara Lecha v'Achalta
2. Answer: It excludes people that are subservient to
(c) Suggestion: Perhaps this is only if the Yisrael eats!
(d) Rejection (Rava): "V'Kara Lecha" is extra to teach that
from the time he agrees to go, it is as if he ate.
(e) Within 30 days after the wedding it is forbidden to go,
even if the Nochri did not say that it is on account of
4) WHEN ROME SEIZED POWER
1. After 30 days, it is forbidden only if he says that
it is on account of the wedding;
(f) Question: For how long after the wedding is it forbidden
when he says that it is on account of the wedding?
(g) Answer (Rav Papa): For 12 months.
(h) Question: From when does the prohibition begin?
(i) Answer (Rav Papa): From when they plant barley in a
trough (to pass in front of the bride and groom for an
omen to be fruitful; Rashi - or, when they start soaking
barley to make beer for the wedding).
(j) Question (against the previous answer): But we are
concerned even after 12 months!
1. R. Yitzchak brei d'Rav Mesharshiya went to a
Nochri's house after 12 months; he heard them
praising, and did not eat!
(k) Answer: For a great person, even after 12 months is
(a) (Mishnah): And Karteisim...
(b) (Rav Yehudah): This is the day that Rome seized power.
(c) Question (Beraisa): Karteisim and the day that Rome
(d) Answer (Rav Yosef): Rome seized power twice; when they
conquered Kleopatra, and when they conquered Yavan.
(e) (Rav Dimi): Rome made 32 battles against Yavan and was
unable to conquer them until they joined with Yisrael.
(f) They stipulated: if we become the kings, we will appoint
you to be the mayors; if you become the kings, you will
make us the mayors.
(g) Rome told Yavan: until now, we fought; now, let us judge
who should rule:
1. A pearl or a (more) precious stone - which should be
the setting for the other?
(h) Rome overcame Yavan; for 26 years they fulfilled their
promise to Yisrael, after that they subjugated Yisrael.
2. Yavan: The pearl is the setting.
3. Rome sent similar questions, and Yavan answered that
a precious stone should be the setting for carbuncle
(a more precious stone); carbuncle should be the
setting for a Sefer Torah.
4. Rome: The Sefer Torah and Yisrael are with us!
(i) Question: Why did they first honor it, and later stop?
(j) Answer: At first they expounded "V'Elecha l'Negdecha"
(Esav will be even with Yakov); later, they expounded
"Ya'avor Na Adoni Lifnei Avdo (Esav will be a master over
(k) Question: What is the source that they fulfilled their
promise for 26 years?
(l) Answer: From the following teaching (which concludes on
the next Daf).
(m) (Rav Kahana citing R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): 180 years
before the Churban (of the second Mikdash), Rome
subjugated Yisrael; 80 years before the Churban,
Chachamim decreed that Chutz la'Aretz is Tamei and that
glass vessels receive Tum'ah;
1. Forty years before the Churban, the Great Sanhedrin
exiled itself to Chanus (a place).
2. Question: What do we learn from this?
3. Answer: (Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi): After they exiled
themselves, fines were not enforced.
4. Objection: But Rav Yehudah taught, if not for R.
Yehudah ben Bava, fines would have been forgotten
i. Objection: Why would they be forgotten,
Chachamim should teach them!
5. Correction (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Rather, after
they exiled themselves, capital punishment was not
ii. Correction: Rather, they would not have been
enforced, for Rome decreed to kill anyone that
gives Semichah (ordination, which is necessary
to collect fines) or receives Semichah, and to
destroy the city and its outskirts where
Semichah was given;
iii. R. Yehudah ben Bava went between two mountains,
between two cities, between their outskirts,
and gave Semichah to R. Meir, R. Yehudah, R.
Yosi, R. Shimon, and R. Elazar ben Shamu'a (Rav
Avya adds, also R. Nechemyah). (They lived long
after the Sanhedrin was exiled, and they
iv. When the troops of Rome found out, R. Yehudah
ben Bava told them 'Flee; I will remain here'.
They pierced him with 300 iron spears.
6. Question: What was the Sanhedrin's reason?
7. Answer: There were too many murderers, they could
not judge them all; they reasoned, it is better to
be in exile, so they will not be liable;
i. "Min ha'Makom ha'Hu" - capital punishment can
be sentenced only if the Great Sanhedrin is in
its place (in Liskas ha'Gazis in the Mikdash).