ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 75
AVODAH ZARAH 72-76 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor.
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(a) When Bei Rav in the name of Rav say (in connection with Niguv) 'Tarti
T'las', they mean - that if the tub is still wet, then one only needs to
clean it once with ashes and once with water, whereas if it is already dry,
then one begins with water, then uses ashes and then water once more.
(b) By the same token, when Shmuel says 'T'las, Arba', he means - that when
the tub is wet, it requires ashes, water and ashes; whereas when it is dry,
it requires water, ashes, water and ashes.
(c) The basic Machlokes between Rav and Shmuel is - that Rav requires one
cleaning out with ashes, and Shmuel requires two.
(d) Shmuel ignores the 'Mayim' that one inevitably ends up with - because
that is performed for aesthetic reasons, and is not required by Halachah.
(a) That was how they cited the Machlokes in Sura. In Pumbedisa, Bei Rav in
the name of Rav said 'T'las Arba', and Shmuel - 'Arba Chameish'.
(b) We will now explain ...
1. ... Rav's opinion - like we explained Shmuel's according to the first
Lashon (three when the tub is still wet, and four when it is already dry),
only this time, Rav is the one not to mention the final rinsing with water).
(c) In fact, according to this Lashon - both opinions require two lots of
ashes, and there is no Machlokes, as we explained.
2. ... Shmuel's opinion - the same as Rav, only *he* does mention it.
(a) Alternatively, it is Rav and Shmuel who argue in both Leshonos, whereas
the two Leshonos don't (this is the explanation of Rashi's father, whereas
the first explanation is that of Rashi's Rebbe). In that case, when Bei Rav
in the name of Rav say (in connection with Niguv) 'Tarti T'las', they mean -
water and ashes in the case of a dry tub, and ashes, water and ashes by a
(b) Shmuel ...
1. ... agrees in the case of - a wet tub, but ...
(c) That is what they said in Sura. When, in Pumbedisa, they said 'T'las
ve'Arba' and 'Arba ve'Chameish' in Pumbedisa, they meant exactly the same as
the 'Tarti T'las' and 'T'las ve'Arba' in Sura, only they counted the last
rinsing with water.
2. ... argues in the case of - a dry one (where. like in the first
explanation, he requires two cleanings with ashes).
(d) We prefer the second Lashon, because, according to the first, the Lashon
of Sura is problematic in that - seeing as it is coming to teach us the
Machlokes between Rav and Shmuel, what was the point in omitting the last
rinsing with water according to Shmuel, and not according to Rav? It ought
therefore to have cited Shmuel as saying 'Arba ve'Chameish'.
(a) They asked Rebbi Avahu how one Kashers or purifies 'Gurgi', a sort of
lattice-work which covers and holds together the grapes beneath the beam in
the wine-press - or a wickerwork basket (made of creepers from a date-palm)
for pressing dates.
(b) In reply, Rebbi Avahu cited a Beraisa, which discusses purifying wine
and olive presses. The Tana requires the beams, the tubs and the palm-branch
brooms - for gathering the grapes that scatter in the wine-press, to be
(c) From the fact that Rebbi Avahu resolved the She'eilah that was put to
him, from this Beraisa, we can learn - that the tub of the wine-press does
not require Niguv (as we learned in our Mishnah [and that washing them is
(a) The Tana requires baskets made of ...
1. ... sticks or canvas (or flax) - to be dried (Niguv).
(b) Despite the fact that the wine season generally occurs once a year, the
difference between the Tana Kama and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, who says
'from one pressing to the next' - will be there where the next season occurs
late or early; the Tana Kama requires one year, irrespective, Raban Shimon
ben Gamliel one season, irrespective.
2. ... various kinds of rushes (which are more absorbent) - to be left for
(c) Rebbi Yossi gives a totally different Shiur. In his opinion, one lets
them stand under a pipe with a steady flow, or in a fast-flowing spring.
(d) He prescribes leaving them there for an Onah, adding that this Din
applies to Taharos (just as it applies to Yayin Nesech) - which we invert,
seeing as the Beraisa is talking about Taharos.
(a) Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan defines 'Onah' as a day or a
night. Rebbi Chana She'inah (or Rebbi Chana bar She'inah) Amar ... Rebbi
Yochanan says - half a day plus half a night.
(b) When we say that the two opinions do not argue, we mean - that the
former opinion is speaking about the spring or the autumn, when the days and
the nights are equal (each comprising twelve hours); whereas the latter
opinion speaks in the summer or the winter, when the days and the nights are
of different lengths.
(a) According to Rav Yehudah, 'Ravki' - sacks into which one places
grape-dregs, in order to sift the juice that flows from them, can be made
either of hair or of wool.
(b) Ravki made of hair belonging to a Nochri require Niguv, whereas those
made of wool (which absorb more) - must stand for twelve months.
(c) If there are knots - one must first untie them (and this is also the Din
in the case that follows).
(d) Rav Yehudah also discusses baskets and a bee-hive-shaped contraption for
sifting wine. If it is made of palm-branches, it requires rinsing out.
Assuming it is made of ...
1. ... sedge (a kind of rush), it requires - Niguv.
2. ... flax - leaving for twelve months.
(a) Rebbi and Rebbi Chiya argue over a case where an Am ha'Aretz touches a
cluster of grapes that is lying in the wine in the wine-press. One of them
declares all the wine in the wine-press Tamei, the other one - maintains
that it is only the cluster and the wine immediately surrounding it that is
Tamei, whereas the rest of the wine remains Tahor.
(b) In a case where a Sheretz is found in among the olives that are being
ground in a mill, the Mishnah in Taharos assuming that the oil is ...
1. ... not flowing yet, rules - that it only renders Tamei the part that it
(c) We reconcile this with the one who declares the wine in the wine-pit
Tahor - by differentiating between the case there, where nothing divides
between the spot where the Sheretz touched and the remainder of the oil, and
our case, where the cluster creates a clear division.
2. ... already flowing, rules - that all the oil in the mill is Tamei.
(d) The Rabbanan indicated to Rebbi Yirmiyah (or to his son) - that the
Halachah is like the one who is lenient.
(a) When the Tana of our Mishnah rules that someone who purchases something
that requires ...
1. ... Tevilah has to Tovel it, he is referring to - an eating utensil that
is generally used in cold water (and therefore requires Tevilah and no more.
(b) ... such as a spit-rod and a roasting grid.
2. ... Hag'alah, needs to make Hag'alah, he is referring to - cooking
utensils, that are generally used with hot water.
3. ... burning in fire, must burn it in fire, he is referring to - utensils
that are generally used directly in fire ...
(c) A knife, says the Tana - needs to be filed on a grindstone.
(d) The Beraisa adds to our Mishnah - that all the cases require Tevilah in
a Kasher Mikveh after they have been Kashered.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk (in connection with the K'lei Midi'an) "Kol
Davar Asher Yavo ba'Eish, Ta'aviru ba'Eish (ve'Taher)" - the principle of
'ke'Bol'o Kach Polto' (a vessel exudes in the same manner as it absorbs).
(b) And Rava learns from the word "ve'Taher" - that even after Kashering, a
vessel requires Tevilah in a Mikveh.
(c) The Torah continues "Ach be'Mei Nidah Yischata". Kapara, citing a
Beraisa, learns from the word "Ach" - that utensils obtained from a Nochri
do not need to be sprinkled with ashes of the Parah Adumah on the third and
(a) Despite the fact that the utensils do not require sprinkling with the
ashes of the Parah Adumah, the Torah needs to write "be'Mei Nidah" - to
teach us that they must be Toveled in a Mikveh that is Kasher for the
Tevilah of a Nidah.
(b) And the Torah still found it necessary to write "ve'Taher" - to teach us
that they are Tahor immediately, and that one does not need to wait until
nightfall before using them.
(c) Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah extrapolate from "Kol Davar Asher Yavo
ba'Eish" that even new vessels that one obtains from a Nochri also require
Tevilah - because any utensil that is placed in fire, is like new (yet it
(d) In that case, Rav Sheishes asked Rav Nachman (seeing as even new
utensils require Tevilah) why do a pair of tailor's scissors that one
purchased from a Nochri does not require Tevilah too. Rav Nachman replied -
that the Pasuk is speaking exclusively about eating utensils, seeing as they
are the only kind of vessels that are sometimes used directly in fire.
(a) Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah learned that utensils that one borrows
from a Nochri need not be Toveled - from the Parshah in Matos, which is
confined to vessels which the soldiers captured, and which therefore
belonged to them.
(b) This does not mean that borrowed vessels may be used without being
Kashered - since that is a question of eating 'T'reif, which is obviously
forbidden, irrespective of whose utensils they are.
(a) When Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef wanted to Tovel an eating utensil made of
earth and animal dung, Rebbi Ya'akov pointed out to him what he heard from
Rebbi Yochanan - namely, that the Parshah lists specifically metal utensils.
(b) Rav Ashi says however - that the fact that glass vessels that break can
be repaired, renders them similar to metal vessels, and they require Tevilah
(c) Rav Acha and Ravina argue over earthenware utensils that have been
overlaid with lead - one of them goes after the beginning of the vessel
(which is not Chayav Tevilah), the other, after the end (which is).
(d) The Halachah is - that we go after the end, and they are Chayav Tevilah.
(a) Rav Ashi - Toveled a silver utensil that he received from a Nochri as a
(b) Mar bar Rav Ashi learned from his father's actions - that a Mashkon
(c) He did not conclude however, from there that a Mashkon is considered a
sale in this regard - because he was not sure whether his father's reason
for Toveling the utensil was because he considered every Mashkon like a sale
in this regard, or whether it was only because he sensed that the owner
intended to leave the Mashkon with him in lieu of his debt.
(d) Another Beraisa gives a detailed list of the Dinim of Kashering utensils
obtained from a Nochri. The Tana there rules that utensils that were used in
cold water - must be rinsed before Toveling them.