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Previous dafBerachos 40
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg
and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is
devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara,
Rashi or Tosfos.)
 Gemara 40b [line 31]:
the words: "*d'Tanya* Lo Avarti"
should be: "*d'Tnan* Lo Avarti"
This is the Girsa of the Rosh and Dikdukei Sofrim #400. The Gemara is more
likely to bring a proof from a Mishnah (Ma'aser Sheni 5:11), rather than
from the Beraisa in Sifri, since they are exactly the same. See the
Tzelach, who suggests a beautiful approach to explain the Girsa of "d'Tanya".
 Tosfos 40b DH Amar Abaye:
the words: "Y"M (Yesh Mefarshim) d'Mistabra *Beraisa* Kavasei"
should be: "Y"M (Yesh Mefarshim) *d'Halachah k'Rav*, d'Mistabra *u'Beraisa*
This is the correct Girsa, based upon the Rosh at the end of 6:23.
"u'Me'ein Sheva d'Matzli"
Before these words, it is necessary to add another answer to the question
about the first Berachah of Shemoneh Esrei, namely "Iy Nami, ha'Keil
ha'Kadosh Hu k'Malchus" ("Alternatively, ha'Keil ha'Kadosh is equivalent to
Malchus"). (This seems necessary based upon the words of the Rosh ibid.)
1) [line 2] LIFTAN - relish
2) [line 4] GAVIL L'TOREI - mix (the coarse bran) for the oxen
3) [line 13] BATZA L'HEDYA - he immediately broke the bread (without
waiting for salt or relish)
4) [line 15] LEIS DEIN TZARICH BASHESH - this bread does not need to wait
[until salt or relish is brought] (it is quite tasty by itself
5) [line 16] KALIM - completely finish
6) [line 17] AFAR TICHO'ACH - loose, fine dirt
7a) [line 19] MADRON - slope
b) [line 27] ASKERA - (O.F. bon malant) quinsy, a severe development of
heat, pain, redness and swelling in the throat
8) [line 27] HA'MAKPEH ACHILASO B'MAYIM - one who drinks a lot of water
after he eats (lit. one who makes his food float in water)
9) [line 29] KITON L'FAS - a flask of water per loaf of bread
10) [line 32] KASHEH L'REI'ACH HA'PEH - it produces bad breath
11) [line 33] CHARDAL - mustard
12) [line 35] CHULSHAH D'LIBA - faintness of the heart
13a) [line 38] MAFRIN U'MARBIN - cause people to have children
b) [line 38] MAVRIN - revive, make healthy
14) [line 39] KETZACH - (O.F. neele) fennel flower, a sweet-smelling herb
used for flavoring food; alt. black cumin
15) [line 40] HA'YASHEN L'MIZRACH GORNO - one who sleeps to the east of his
threshing floor of Ketzach
16) [line 41] MEDABKA LEI - she would stick some Ketzach to the dough
17) [line 42] U'MEKALFA LEI - and peel it off
18) [line 45] ME'EIN BIRCHOSAV - it own type of blessings
19) [line 52] MEVI V'EINO KOREI
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge
in one's field every year to the Kohanim in the Beis ha'Mikdash. A Kohen
takes the basket of fruit and places it at the southeastern corner of the
altar's base (Mishna Bikurim 2:3). The owner recites a specified
declaration (Devarim 26:3,5-10), and the fruits are then given to the Kohen
(Bikurim 3:8; 2:11).
20) [last line] ISEI L'GAVZA - the stem remains
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the
land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes,
figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 3:6). (Although many other
types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the *only* species of
produce truly indigenous to Israel. Other, "immigrant," species can be
destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these 7 species will always be
part of the land -- heard once from a leading botanist -MK.)
(c) In certain instances, the owner only brings the fruit, without reciting
the declaration (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if he brings them between
Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite the verses (see Gemara Pesachim 36b
and Rashi there). Our Gemara cites an instance where the Tana'im argue as
to whether the owner recites the declaration or not.
21) [line 21] BINYAMIN RA'AYA - Binyamin the shepherd
22) [line 22] BERICH MAREI D'HAI PITA - Blessed be the Master of this bread
23) [line 27] PARSHAS SOTAH
(a) A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery, because she
was warned by her husband not to be alone with a certain man, and then she
violated the warning. The husband must bring his wife to the Beis
ha'Mikdash, along with a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx.
2 quarts) of barley meal.
24) [line 27] VIDUY MA'ASER
(b) An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Lug of water from the
Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water.
Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a
Sotah is cursed (which contains numerous appearances of HaSh-m's name), is
written on parchment and then immersed in the water, causing the ink to
dissolve and the holy name to be erased.
(c) The Kohen reads this Parshah out loud (in any language that the Sotah
understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to her
husband. She then drinks from the water. If she had been unfaithful to her
husband, the water would enter her body and cause her belly to swell out
and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful to her husband, she would
remain unharmed and would be blessed with children (Bamidbar 5:11-31)
(a) After a crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he
must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Although
the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the
requirement at approximately one fiftieth.
25) [line 33] NOVLOS - fruit that was scorched by the sun or dates that
were blown off by the wind
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given
every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given
to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been
separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the
7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth
years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be
brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser
Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is
brought to Yerushalayim. The food which is bought with that money in
Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.
(e) The Torah requires that at two times during the Shemitah cycle the
owner must recite Viduy Ma'aser, as is learned from Devarim 26:12-13. He
declares that he has set aside all of the required tithes and gifts, and
that he kept all the Mitzvos with regard to them. This declaration is done
in the afternoon of the last day of Pesach in the fourth and seventh years.
The declaration is found in Devarim 26:13-15, and may be recited in any
language that the owner understands. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 11:1-3)
26) [line 34] GOVAI - Kosher grasshoppers
27) [line 37] SHE'IPSHAH - that became moldy
28) [line 38] SHE'HIKRIM - (O.F. boter) that became slimy from
29) [line 38] SHE'AVAR TZURASO - that turned sour
30) [line 38] ZAMIS - a) (O.F. salmuire) brine (RASHI 36a); b) soup
(ARUCH); c) the foam that collects at the top of a pot of cooked food (RAV
HAI GAON); d) salt water (TUR)
31) [line 38] KEMEHIM, PITRIYOS - types of boletes, such as mushrooms,
morels and truffles
32) [line 41] MIRBA RAVU ME'AR'A - they grow from the ground
33) [line 41] MINKEI LO YANKEI ME'AR'A - they do not take their nourishment
from the ground
34) [line 42] BUSHLEI CHAMRA - fruit that was scorched by the sun
35) [line 42] TAMREI D'ZIKA - dates that were blown off by the wind
36) [line 46] NOVLOS TEMARA - Novlos (see above, #25) that are specifically
37) [line 46] DEMAI
Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his
Torah-observance) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" = "what is this?").
Ma'aser Rishon, Terumas Ma'aser, and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from
this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have
separated them before selling it. Terumah Gedolah, however, (because of its
stringency) and Ma'aser Sheni (because it belongs to the owner) are
presumed to have been separated.
38) [line 46] SHISIN - a kind of wild, inferior fig
39) [line 46] RIMIN - a fruit that grows on a type of thorny tree or bush
40) [line 46] UZRADIN - (O.F. cormes) sorb-apples; alt. medlars,
41) [line 47] BENOS SHU'ACH - a species of inferior white figs, the flowers
of which develop into fruits over a 3-year period
42) [line 47] BENOS SHIKMA - sycamore fruits; alt., figs that are similar
to the fruit of the sycamore
43) [line 47] GUFNIN - winter-grapes that never ripen; alt., a type of
fragrant herb that resembles dill
44) [line 47] NIZTPAH - the fruit of the caper-berry bush
45) [last line] LEKET
"Leket" refers to individual (one or two) stalks that have fallen from the
sickle or hand during the harvest. Such stalks may not be retrieved by the
owner but must be left for the poor, as described in Vayikra (19:9)
"v'Leket Ketzircha Lo Selaket ...". If three stalks fall together, they may
be retrieved by the owner
46) [last line] SHIKCHAH
If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other
bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in
47) [last line] PE'AH
The corner, or end of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor,
as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor ... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov
Osam" (Vayikra 19:9-10) - Do not completely harvest the corner of your
field ... you shall leave them for the poor and the stranger.
48) [last line] HUKBE'U L'MA'ASER
See #24 above. By Torah Law, a person is required to tithe his grain only
if he harvests it in a normal manner. This includes completing the
stalk-to-grain process in the field, piling up the grain there and bringing
it through the front door of his house (Berachos 35b). It is then Hukba
l'Ma'aser (designated for tithing). Leket, Shikchah and Pe'ah are exempt
from Ma'aser. However, if a poor person piles up the grain that he
collected, he must set aside Ma'aser mid'Rabanan, since it appears to
onlookers to be the grain of his own field.