THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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QUESTION: The Shacharis prayer is called Shacharis because it is the
morning ("Shachar") prayer, and it corresponds to the morning Tamid
offering. The nighttime prayer, Arvis (or Ma'ariv) is called such because
it is said at night (Erev). Why, though, is the afternoon prayer called
(a) TOSFOS (Pesachim 107a, DH Samuch) explains that a Minchah (flour)
offering was brought together with the afternoon Tamid, and therefore the
prayer that corresponds to the afternoon Tamid is called Minchah (as
opposed to Arvis, which corresponds only to the offering of the Tamid's
limbs and not to the offering of a Minchah). Even though a Minchah offering
was also brought with the *morning* Tamid, for the morning prayer there is
a more general name that can be used ("Shacharis"). The word that is used
to refer to the afternoon ("Erev"), though, is already being used to refer
to the nighttime prayer, Arvis.
(b) TOSFOS (ibid.) answers further that the Gemara (Berachos 6b) says that
Minchah is a special prayer, because that was the time of day that G-d
answered Eliyahu and the idolaters were proven wrong. Perhaps Eliyahu was
bringing a Minchah offering at the time, and Hashem answered his prayers
because it was a propitious time of Divine favor. We therefore call the
afternoon prayer, "The prayer of the Minchah (of Eliyahu)," to remind
ourselves that it is prayed during a time of Divine favor.
The VILNA GA'ON in Shenos Eliyahu adds that we find that a person is
allowed to recite Minchah until the very end of the day. If the afternoon
prayer was instituted to correspond to the afternoon Korban Tamid as the
Gemara (26b) states, that Korban's slaughtering was never done later than 8
1/2 hours into the day, so why should we be able to Daven after the time of
the slaughtering of the Tamid?
Rather, answers to Gaon, the Minchah prayer was instituted to correspond
not to the offering of the Tamid, but to the Minchah offering that was
brought with the Korban Tamid (during which Eliyahu's prayer's were
answered), which could be brought until the very end of the day (sunset
according to the Rabanan, Plag ha'Minchah according to Rebbi Yehudah). He
explains that the reason the time for the afternoon prayer was determined
by the Minchah offering (and the morning prayer was not) is because the
Korban along with all of its associated offerings make up one single group
called the Korban Tamid. In the morning, the time of prayer is determined
by the *first* part of the Korban, which is the sacrificing of the Korban,
while in the afternoon, one may Daven until the *last* part of the Korban,
which is the Minchah offering.
(d) RAMBAM (Perush ha'Mishnayos) says that the late afternoon is called
"Minchah" in Hebrew, and therefore the afternoon prayer is called as such.
The AVUDRAHAM adds that the Torah refers to the late afternoon as "Ruach
ha'Yom" (Bereishis 3:8), which the Targum translates as "*li'Menach* Yoma",
which means the time when the sun can be seen to be setting. Hence, the
prayer said at that time is called Minchah.
2) HALACHAH: FORGETTING "YA'ALEH V'YAVO"
QUESTION: If a person missed Shacharis, he should Daven Minchah twice. So,
too, if a person missed Minchah or Ma'ariv, he should Daven the following
prayer twice. What happens if, on Rosh Chodesh, a person forgot Ya'aleh
v'Yavo during Minchah, and did not remember until nighttime, which is no
longer Rosh Chodesh? Should he say Ma'ariv that night twice even though it
is not Rosh Chodesh, in order to make up for the lost Shemoneh Esreh? Or
should he not recite an extra Shemoneh Esreh, because he is not going to
gain anything from it (that is, he will not gain the blessings of Shemoneh
Esreh, because he already said them at Minchah; he will not gain
Ya'alehv'Yavo, because he does not recite it the night after Rosh Chodesh)?
There are two opinions in the Rishonim (cited in TOSFOS DH Ta'ah):
(a) RABEINU YEHUDAH HA'CHASID says that one should not recite another
Shemoneh Esreh at night to make up for missing Ya'aleh v'Yavo in Minchah of
the previous day, because one gains nothing by doing so.
HALACHAH: The ROSH (4:2) considers this question a Halachic uncertainty.
Therefore, he concludes that one should Daven a second Shemoneh Esreh of
Ma'ariv, but have in mind that it is a Tefilas Nedavah. (Since he is saying
a Tefilas Nedavah because he is in doubt as to whether he actually is
obligated to Daven now, he does not have to add a new request in his
Tefilah like one is normally required to do when reciting a Tefilas
Nedavah). The Mishnah Berurah adds that if the night after Rosh Chodesh is
a Shabbos or Yom Tov, then he should *not* repeat Shemoneh Esreh, since a
Tefilas Nedavah is not said on those days, see Insights to Berachos 21:2.
(b) The RIF argues that a person should still Daven a second Ma'ariv, even
though he does not recite Ya'aleh v'Yavo in it.
It appears that the two opinions argue as to why a person has to Daven
again when he misses Ya'aleh v'Yavo on Rosh Chodesh (for example, if he
missed Ya'aleh v'Yavo in the Shacharis Shemoneh Esreh and remembered only
after he had finished). Is it because his Shemoneh Esreh is lacking *Yaleh
v'Yavo*, and he must make that up? Or is it because it is considered as
though his *entire Shemoneh Esreh* is lacking, since it was not prayed
properly, and he must make up the entire Shemoneh Esreh?
Rabeinu Yehudah ha'Chasid maintains that his Shemoneh Esreh is a valid
Tefilah, but it was just lacking Ya'aleh v'Yavo, and therefore he must
recite a second Shemoneh Esreh to make up for missing Ya'aleh v'Yavo.
Consequently, when reciting another Shemoneh Esreh will not give him the
Ya'aleh v'Yavo which he missed (such as our case of Davening Ma'ariv
twice), Rabeinu Yehudah ha'Chasid sees no reason to repeat the Shemoneh
Esreh. The Rif, on the other hand, maintains that his entire Shemoneh Esreh
is *not* a valid Tefilah, and therefore he must repeat it, even when he
will not gain Ya'aleh v'Yavo by repeating it.