Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
1) Some opinions hold that there are three Mishmaros and others, four.
(a) If Rebbi Eliezer holds like the former opinion, then he should have said that one may recite the Shema until three hours, and if he is of the latter opinion, then he should have said 'three'. Why did he say 'until the end of the fourth watch', and to which of the two opinions does he subscribe?2)
(a) How can one recognize the watches?The beginning of the first watch is the advent of night and the end of the second, the advent of day
(b) Why then, should they require a sign? (two answers)3) Rebbi Yossi once entered one of the ruins of Yerushalayim to Daven, and Eliyahu waited for him at the entrance until he concluded his Tefilah.
(a) What constructive remark did Eliyahu make when Rebbi Yossi left, and what did Rebbi Yossi reply?4) There are three reasons for not entering a ruin: 1. ...because of suspicion; 2. ...because of the danger that it might collapse; 3. ...because of demons.
(a) What does 'suspicion' mean, and why do we need *this* reason, seeing as we have the other two?
(a) What does Rebbi Nasan learn from the story of Gideon, where the Pasuk refers to 'the middle watch', and how does Rebbi counter this?Rebbi proves that there are four Mishmaros from two Pesukim in Tehilim: "Chatzos Layla Akum" etc. and "Kidemu Eynai Ashmuros".
(c) How does Rebbi Nasan explain those Pesukim? (two answers)6)
(a) What is one permitted to say in front of a dead person?7) David ha'Melech has told us that he was accustomed to arise at midnight. But elsewhere he said that his getting-up time was early in the night ("Nescafe").
The Gemara's first answer is that he was always up by latest midnight.
(a) What are the Gemara's two answers?8) The Gemara asks that, since even Moshe could not discern the exact moment when midnight was, how could David ha'Melech have known it?
(a) What makes the Gemara think that Moshe did not know when midnight was?9) David ha'Melech would then instruct them to go and attack their enemies. There followed four stages, all contained in the Pasuk "ve'Acharei Achitofel, Benayahu ben Yehoyada, ve'Evyasar, ve'Sar Tzeva la'Melech Yoav".
(a) What are the four stages, and how are they derived from this Pasuk?