POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Bava Metzia 25
1) THINGS THAT MUST BE ANNOUNCED
(a) (Mishnah): The following must be announced: produce found
in a vessel, an empty vessel, coins in a wallet or an
empty wallet, bunches of produce or coins, three coins on
top of each other, bundles of sheaves in a private
domain, loaves (not of a baker), shearings from the
dyer's store, and barrels of wine or oil.
2) FOUND COINS
(b) (Gemara) Inference: One must only announce produce found
in a vessel and coins in a wallet - but if they were
found in front of the vessel or wallet, he keeps (the
produce or coins, even though the vessel or wallet has a
(c) Our Mishnah teaches as the following Beraisa.
1. (Beraisa): If one finds produce in front of a vessel
or coins in front of a wallet, he keeps it;
(d) Contradiction (Beraisa): If one finds something with a
Siman next to something without a Siman - he must
2. If some of the produce or coins is in the vessel or
wallet and the some is on the ground, he must
1. If someone gave the Siman (and said that the other
object is not his), the finder keeps the other
(e) Answer #1 (Rav Zvid): The Mishnah permits keeping flax
found near a barrel, or coins near a wallet - they could
not have come from the barrel or wallet, for surely some
would have remained inside;
1. The latter Beraisa speaks of produce that could
entirely spill out of the vessel.
(f) Answer #2 (Rav Papa): Both speak of produce found in
front of a vessel; we assume that the vessel has a rim
(as most do) that would keep some of the contents inside.
1. The Mishnah is when nothing remains in the vessel,
the Beraisa is when some remains inside.
(g) Answer #3: Both are when nothing remains inside; the
Beraisa is when the mouth of the vessel faces the produce
(so presumably, the produce came from the vessel), the
Mishnah is when the mouth faces away.
(h) Answer #4: Both are when nothing remains inside; and the
mouth of the vessel faces the produce; the Mishnah is
when the vessel has a rim, the Beraisa is when it does
(i) (Mishnah): Bunches of produce or coins (must be
(j) Inference: This teaches that number is a Siman (for they
have no other Siman )!
(k) Rejection: No, the Mishnah refers to one bunch of
produce, the Siman is the place it was found.
(l) Inference: This teaches that place is a Siman !
(m) Rejection: No, we can say that the Mishnah refers to
bunches of produce, the Siman is the number.
(a) (Mishnah): Three coins on top of each other.
(b) (R. Yitzchak Migdala'ah): This is only if they are
stacked as a tower - if not, he keeps them.
(c) Support (Beraisa): One who finds scattered coins, he
keeps them; if they are stacked as towers he must
1. A tower is 3 coins on top of each other.
(d) Question: First, the Beraisa permits scattered coins -
implying, if they overlap at all, he must announce them;
then it says, if they are stacked as towers he must
announce them - implying, if they overlap, he keeps them!
(e) Answer: If they are not as a tower, the Tana calls this
(f) (R. Chanina): This is only if there are of three
different kings - but if they are of the same king, he
need not announce them.
(g) Question: What is the case?
1. If they are like a tower - even if they are of the
same king, he must announce them!
(h) Correction: Rather, he must announce them only if they
are of one king which is like being of three different
2. If they are not like as a tower - even if they are
of different kings, he need not announce them!
(i) Question: What is the case?
(j) Answer: They are like a pyramid, the widest on bottom,
next widest over it, the narrowest on top, for surely he
placed them thusly;
1. But if they are like coins of one king, i.e. they
are all the same width, he does not announce them -
we say, he did not place them, they happened to fall
(k) (R. Yochanan): Even if they are (like) of the same king,
he must announce them.
(l) Question: What does he announce?
(m) Answer #1: The number he found.
(n) Rejection: If so (the finder will not say how many he
lost), even if he found 2, he should announce them!
(o) Answer #2 (Ravina): Rather, he announces that he found
(p) Questions (R. Yirmeyah): What is the law in the following
cases: he found them in a circle; in a row; in a
triangle; as steps?
(q) Answer (regarding steps): Rav Nachman taught, if one can
move them at once using a chip of wood, he must announce
(r) Question (Rav Ashi): If they are arranged like the idol
Markulis (we shall explain), what is the law?
3) ONE WHO FINDS CHICKS
1. (Beraisa): One who finds scattered coins, he keeps
them; if they are arranged like Markulis, he must
(s) (Beraisa): Reuven found a Sela in the market; Shimon said
'It is mine - it was new, Niron Kaiser's name was on it,
it was of King Ploni - he does not get it;
i. Markulis is two stones near each other, and a
third resting partially on each.
1. Even if Shimon's name was on it, he does not get it,
for Simanim do not help for coins.
2. Perhaps he spent it, and someone else dropped it!
(a) (Mishnah): If one finds tied chicks in back of a fence,
or on a path in a field, he leaves it there.
4) THINGS FOUND IN A WASTEHEAP
(b) If one finds a vessel in the wasteheap - if it is
covered, he leaves it; if it is exposed, he takes and
(c) (Gemara) Question: Why does he leave it?
(d) Answer: We assume that someone left it there - if the
finder would take it, the owner will not find it, and
perhaps he does not have a Siman !
(e) Question: The knot should be a Siman !
(f) Answer (R. Aba bar Zavda): They are tied by their wings,
everyone ties them thusly.
(g) Question: The place they were found should be a Siman !
(h) Answer (Rav Ukva bar Chama): They can walk slowly.
(i) Question: If so, they could have come from afar, he
should keep them!
(j) Answer: It is possible that they came from afar, it is
possible that they were placed there;
1. Whenever we are in doubt if something was placed, he
should not take it; if he took it, he does not put
(a) (Mishnah): If one finds a vessel in the wasteheap - if it
is covered, he leaves it; if it is exposed, he takes and
5) THINGS FOUND IN A WALL
(b) Contradiction (Beraisa): If one finds a vessel covered in
the wasteheap, he takes and announces it, for wasteheaps
are often cleared out (and if left, the item will
(c) Answer #1 (Rav Zvid): If one finds a wine flask or cup,
it was put there intentionally, he should leave it; a
knife or small fork was presumably lost or thrown out, he
(d) Answer #2 (Rav Papa): Both refer to a wine flask or cup;
if the wasteheap is often cleared out, he should take it;
if the wasteheap is not often cleared out, he should
(e) Question: If it is often cleared out, the owner knowingly
threw it out to be lost!
(f) Answer #3 (Rav Papa): Rather, he takes it by a wasteheap
that is not normally cleared out, and they reconsidered
to clear it out.
1. This explains the language of the Beraisa 'for
wasteheaps are often cleared out'.
(g) Question: According to Rav Zvid, what does this mean?
(h) Answer: It is common to (unintentionally) clear out small
vessels to wasteheaps.
(a) (Mishnah): One may keep things found in a rockpile or an
(b) In (holes in) a new wall (between Reuven's property and
the public domain) - in the half facing the public
domain, the finder keeps it; in the half facing Reuven'
premises, Reuven gets it.
1. If Reuven rented his house to others, one may keep
even what he finds in the house.
(c) (Gemara - Beraisa): (In an old wall) the finder keeps it,
because he can say that it was from Kana'anim.
(d) Question: Why assume that - perhaps a Yisrael owned the
wall and left it inside!
(e) Answer: They are very rusted, no one leaves things in so