POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Bava Metzia 30
1) CARE FOR VESSELS
(a) (Mishnah): He spreads it out for its upkeep, not for his
2) A LOST OBJECT NOT BEFITTING THE FINDER
(b) Question: May he spread it out for its upkeep and for his
(c) Answer #1 (Mishnah): He spreads it out for its upkeep.
1. Inference: For its upkeep and his own honor is
(d) Answer #2 (Beraisa): He may not spread it on a bed, nor
on a peg for his needs, if guests came, he may not do
this for his needs and its sake together.
2. Question (end of the Mishnah): He may not spread it
out for his own honor.
i. Inference: For its upkeep and for his own honor
3. Conclusion: The inferences contradict one another -
we cannot determine which is correct, the Mishnah is
not a proof either way.
(e) Rejection There is different, for it will be ruined -
either on account of Ayin ha'Ra, or lest it will be
(f) Answer #3 (Beraisa): A calf was brought to a team of
yoked animals. It threshed - (this is not considered that
the owner worked with it) this does not disqualify it
from being used as a beheaded calf;
1. If it was brought in so it will nurse and thresh, it
(g) Rejection: The law of a beheaded calf is different - it
says "Asher Lo Uvad Bah" (work was not done with it) - at
2. This teaches that intention for its and the owner's
benefit is (disqualified) like intent for the
owner's benefit alone!
(h) Question: If so, also in the first case, it should be
(i) Answer: The law is like the law of a red heifer.
1. (Mishnah): If a bird rested on a red heifer, it is
not disqualified; if a male mated with it, it is
(j) (Mishnah): Silver or copper vessels - he should use
2. Question: Why is this?
3. Answer: This is like Rav Papa's teaching (by the
i. (Rav Papa): Had the Torah written 'Uvad (was
worked)', and we would read it "Uvad", we would
disqualify it even if it worked by itself;
ii. Had the Torah written "Avad (he worked (with
it))", and we would read it 'Avad', we would
disqualify it only if he worked with it;
iii. In truth, the Torah wrote "Avad" and tradition
says to pronounce it "Uvad", we disqualify it
if Uvad (it worked) similar to Avad (he worked
with it), i.e. he is pleased that it worked.
(k) (Beraisa): One who finds wooden vessels should use them
so they do not rot; copper vessels may be used with hot
food, but they should not be put over a fire;
1. Silver vessels may be used with cold water, but not
with hot food, for this blackens them.
2. Shovels (for sweeping ashes) and axes should be used
gently, not roughly, for this blunts them;
3. Gold or glass vessels should be left until Eliyahu
comes, he may not touch them.
4. The laws of a lost object also apply to a deposit
(by a free or paid watchman).
5. Question: Why should he use it? (The owner will use
it as he sees fit!)
6. Answer: The case is, the owner went overseas.
(a) (Mishnah): If he finds a bag, box or anything that he
usually would not carry (it is below his dignity), he
leaves it there.
(b) Question: How do we know this?
(c) Answer (Beraisa): "v'Hisalamta" - sometimes you ignore
it, sometimes not.
1. If a Kohen sees a lost object in a cemetery, or a
Chacham finds something below his dignity, or if the
cessation from his work is a bigger loss than the
value of the lost object, he ignores it.
(d) Question: For which of these was the verse needed?
1. Suggestion: For a Kohen who sees a lost object in a
(e) Answer #1: Rather, for when the cessation from his work
is a bigger loss than the value of the lost object.
2. Rejection: This is obvious, no verse is needed!
i. Returning a lost object is an Ase (positive
Mitzvah), a Kohen is forbidden to become Tamei
by a Lav (negative Mitzvah) and an Ase - an Ase
does not override a Lav and an Ase!
ii. Also - prohibitions are not overridden for
(Mitzvos that pertain to) money!
(f) Rejection: We know that from Rav Yehudah's law!
1. (Rav Yehudah): "Lo Yiheye Becha Evyon" (do not bring
yourself to poverty), (avoiding) your own loss takes
(g) Answer #2: Rather, for when a Chacham finds something
below his dignity.
3) WHAT IS CONSIDERED LOST?
(h) (Rabah): If the Chacham hit the animal (so it will return
to its owner), he becomes obligated to return it.
(i) Abaye saw some goats; he threw a clod of earth at them.
(j) Rabah: You are obligated to return them.
(k) Question: If the Chacham would return it in the field
(where few people see him), but not in the city - must he
take it from the field to return it to the city?
1. Since he is not obligated to fully return it, he
need not start;
(l) (Rava): Anything a Chacham would take if it was his own,
he must return if it belongs to another person;
2. Or - in the field, he is obligated to take it - and
once he starts, he must finish!
3. This question is not resolved.
1. A Chacham that would load or unload his own animal,
he must help others load or unload.
(m) R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi saw a man carrying wood. The man
rested, then asked R. Yishmael to help him load the wood.
R. Yishmael bought the wood (to avoid having to help),
and made it Hefker. The man acquired the wood and asked
for help; R. Yishmael again bought it and made it Hefker.
He saw the man going to acquire it again.
(n) R. Yishmael: It is Hefker to all except for you.
(o) Question: That is not Hefker!
1. (Mishnah - Beis Shamai): Something which is Hefker
only for poor people to take - it is Hefker (and is
exempt from Ma'aser);
(p) Answer: Really, R. Yishmael made it Hefker for all; he
deceived the man so he would not take it again.
2. Beis Hillel say, it is only Hefker if rich and poor
may take it, like Shemitah.
(q) Question: But wood is not befitting the honor of R.
Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi, he was exempt!
(r) Answer: R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi went beyond the letter
of the law.
1. (Rav Yosef): "v'Hodata Lahem" - this is learning a
trade (some explain - Torah); "ha'Derech" - this is
Chesed; "Asher Yelchu Bah" - this is visiting the
sick; "Bah" - this is burying the dead; "ha'Ma'aseh"
- this is the law; "Asher Ya'asun" - this is going
beyond the letter of the law.
2. Question: Visiting the sick is included in Chesed!
3. Answer: The Torah must teach by the case of someone
with the same Mazel as the sick person.
i. It was taught - one who visits a sick person
with the same Mazel as himself, one part in 60
of the sickness goes from the sick person to
4. Question: Burying the dead is included in Chesed!
ii. The verse obligates one to visit even in this
5. Answer: The Torah must teach by a Chacham for whom
it is beneath his dignity to dig. (Regarding burial,
he is obligated.)
6. (R. Yochanan): Yerushalayim was only destroyed
because they judged as Torah law.
7. Question: How should they have judged - using
8. Answer: He means, they stuck to the law, they did
not go beyond the letter of the law.
(a) (Mishnah): What is a lost object? A donkey or cow was
grazing on the path - this is not considered lost;
1. If the vessels on a donkey are reversed, or a cow is
running through a vineyard - these are considered
(b) If he returned it and it got lost again, he returned it
and it got lost again - even four or five times, he must
return it - "Hashiv Teshivem".
(c) If in the time Reuven spent returning the lost object he
lost one Sela of earnings, he may not demand compensation
of one Sela - rather, he is paid as a worker (this will
1. (If he wants full compensation -) if there is a Beis
Din there, he stipulates with Beis Din; if not, he
is exempt from returning, because he would lose
(d) (Gemara) Question: Why does the Mishnah ask what is a
lost object - the previous Mishnayos gave many examples!
(e) Answer (Rav Yehudah): The Mishnah asks how to discern
whether something is a lost object.