ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Chagigah 12
CHAGIGAH 12 - has been generously dedicated by Lee and Marsha Weinblatt of
(a) Rebbi Elazar, who we just saw, learns from a Pasuk that Adam ha'Rishon
was as tall as from the earth till the heaven, will agree with Rav Yehudah
Amar Rav, who learns from another Pasuk that Adam was as tall as from one
end of the heaven to the other - because the two Shiurim are one and the
(b) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav lists ten things that were created on the first day
of the creation. Hashem created heaven and earth, Tohu and Vohu, light and
darkness - wind and water, day and night.
(c) 'Tohu' was a green line that encircled the earth, and 'Vohu', the wet
stones that were sunk into the bowels of the earth. From ...
1. ... 'Kav Tohu' - Hashem created darkness.
2. ... 'Avnei Vohu' - water.
(a) We reconcile Rav Yehudah's statement (that light was created on the
*first* day) with the Pasuk, which explicitly states that the luminaries
were created on the *fourth*, with the statement of Rebbi Elazar, who says
that (due to the spirituality of the original light created on the first
day) it was possible to see with it from one end of the world to the other.
But when Hashem saw the generations of the flood and of the tower, He
decided that the world at large was not worthy of that light, so He put it
away for the Tzadikim to use in the World to Come, as the Torah writes
"va'Yar Elokim es ha'Or Ki *Tov*" ('ve'Ein Tov Ela Tzadikim').
(b) Rebbi Elazar concurs with Rebbi Ya'akov in the Beraisa. According to the
Rabbanan of Rebbi Ya'akov - the light that was created on the *first* day
refers in fact, to the luminaries, which Hashem *created then*, but *placed
in the sky* only on the *fourth* day.
(c) Hashem created the world with ten forces (which in all likelihood, match
the ten creations mentioned above. In any case, they certainly correspond to
the ten Sefiros, and also correspond to what Chazal had in mind when they
said that the world was created with ten commands - see Agados Maharsha).
The ten forces are: Chochmah, Tevunah and Da'as, Ko'ach, Ga'arah (scolding)
and Gevurah - Tzedek, Mishpat, Chesed and Rachamim.
(a) Hashem put the Midah of Ga'arah to good use at the creation of the
world. When Hashem created the world, it continued to spread outwards like
two balls of thread (Din and Rachamim - see Agados Maharsha) - until He
*shouted* at it to stop, as is hinted in the Pasuk "Ani Keil *Shakai*, P'rei
u'Revei" ("I am the G-d who said to the world 'Stop! ... '.)
(b) Another occasion is hinted in the Pasuk in Nachum "*Go'er* ba'Yam
va'Yavsheihu, ve'Chol ha'Naharos Hechriv" - which pertains to the creation
of the water on the first day.
(a) Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue over whether the heaven was created
first and then the earth, or vice-versa.
1. Beis Shamai prove from the Pasuk in Bereishis "Bereishis Bara Elokim es
ha'Shamayim ve'es ha'Aretz" - that the heaven was created first.
2. Beis Hillel prove from the Pasuk in Bereishis "be'Yom Asos Hashem Elokim
Eretz ve'Shamayim" - that the earth was created first.
1. Beis Hillel ask Beis Shamai from the Pasuk "ha'Boneh ba'Shamayim
Ma'alosav, va'Agudaso al Eretz Yesadah" - since when does one build an attic
before the ground-floor (because this Pasuk appears to consider the earth
the major creation, and the heaven no than an attic)?
(c) The Chachamim are of a third opinion. They infer from the Pasuk "Af Yadi
Yasdah Aretz vi'Yemini Tipchah Shamayim, Korei Ani Aleihem *Ya'amdu
Yachdav*" - that both heaven and earth were created simultaneously (because
this Pasuk suggests that the two creations are of equal major importance).
2. Beis Shamai retort from the Pasuk "Koh Amar Hashem, ha'Shamayim Kis'i,
ve'ha'Aretz Hadom Raglai" - and since when does one construct the foot-stool
before the throne (because this Pasuk suggests that the heaven is the major
creation, and this world no more than a foot-stool)?
(d) Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai interpret "Ya'amdu Yachdav" - to mean that,
once they were created, they are inseparable.
(a) In any case, the Pesukim quoted by Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel appear
to contradict each other, because, the Heaven and the earth cannot both have
been created first. Resh Lakish, to resolve this apparent discrepancy -
explains even though Hashem *created* the heaven first, it was the earth
that He *set-up* first (see Agados Maharsha).
(b) "Shamayim" is an acronym. According to Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina it
stands for 'Sham Mayim'. The Tana of the Beraisa says it stands for 'Eish
(c) Rebbi Akiva in the name of Nachum Ish Gamzu explains that, had the Torah
1. ... "*es ha*'Shamayim ve'*es ha*'Aretz" - it would have implied that
Shamayim and Aretz are names of Hashem.
(d) Despite the fact that the opening Pasuk in Bereishis mentions the heaven
first (i.e. Hashem called it to be created first), the Torah goes on to
discuss the earthly creations first - as an acknowledgment for their having
come into existence together with the heaven (even though it was called
last, and even though, it is untypical of the earth, which usually behaves
sluggishly, as opposed to the heaven, which is always very quick). Tana
de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael gives a Mashal to a king who ordered his subjects to
appear at the palace gates next morning. When, next morning, he found that
the women had arrived before the men, he praised them, because it is
customary for the men to rise earlier. (See also Agados Maharsha, in whose
opinion, Rebbi Yishmael holds like Beis Hillel - that the earth was created
2. ... the second "es" in "ve'*es ha*'Aretz" - that heaven and earth were
created simultaneously ("es ha'Aretz" comes to teach us that the heaven was
(a) According to Rebbi Yossi in a Beraisa, the sequence: earth, pillars,
water, mountains, winds and storm-wind - describes the structure of the
world in its right order: the earth rests on pillars, the pillars on water,
the water on mountains ... .
(b) The storm-wind is supported by - the Arm of Hashem (His Might).
(c) The Rabbanan disagree with Rebbi Yossi. They learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Yatzeiv Gevulos Amim le'Mispar B'nei Yisrael" (according to some) -
that the world rests on twelve pillars (corresponding to the twelve tribes).
(d) Rebbi Elazar ben Shamua has a fourth opinion. He learns from the Pasuk
"ve'Tzadik Yesod Olam" - that it rests on only *one* foundation, which is
2. ... "Chatzvah Amudeha Shiv'ah" (according to others) - that the world
rests on seven pillars.
(a) According to Rav Yehudah, there are *two* heavens - as the Pasuk writes
in Eikev - Hein la'Hashem Elokecha ha'Shamayim u'Sh'mei ha'Shamayim.
(b) According to Resh Lakish, there are *seven*: Vilon, Raki'a, Shechakim,
Z'vul, Ma'on, Machon - and Arvos.
(c) Vilon appears each morning and disappears each evening, but plays no
positive role in the running of the world. The only other heaven with which
we have visual contact is Raki'a - whose function is to house the sun, the
moon, the stars and the Mazalos.
(d) In Shechakim (whose root is 'li'Sh'chok' - to grind), Hashem grinds Man
for the Tzadikim in preparation for the World to Come.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "Banoh Banisi Beis Z'vul Lach" - that Z'vul
houses Yerushalayim shel Ma'alah and the Beis-Hamikdash shel Ma'alah (see
Agados Maharsha) with the Mizbei'ach, on which Michael the leading angel
stands and brings Korbanos.
(b) Ma'on houses many groups of angels - who sing Shirah each night.
(c) They remain silent by day - in deference to Yisrael, who are singing
(d) We learn this from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Yomam Yetzaveh Hashem Chasdo,
u'va'Laylah Shiro Imi". Resh Lakish however - learns from there that Hashem
extends a thread of lovingkindness by day on anyone who studies Torah by
(a) Rebbi Levi says that anyone who stops learning Torah to talk idle
chatter - will be fed boiling hot coals.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk "Hashkifah mi'Me'on Kodshecha min ha'Shamayim" -
that 'Ma'on' is a heaven.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Ki Savo "Yiftach Hashem Lecha es Otzaro
ha'Tov" that many things are stored in the sixth heaven 'Machon'. In fact,
there are six - all of which are used for punishments (see also Tosfos DH
(b) It serves as an attic for bad dew and bowls of rain-water - and as
store-houses of snow and hail.
(c) Storm-winds are kept there too, and the cave of thick smoke is shut off
with doors of fire.
(d) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav reconciles the above with the Pasuk in Tehilim that
we recite each morning "Halelu es Hashem min ha'Aretz ... Eish u'Varad,
Sheleg ve'Kitor Ru'ach Se'arah Osah Devaro", implying that some of the above
list are stored here on earth - because that is what happened, says Rav
Yehudah Amar Rav, after David ha'Melech prayed for them to be moved there
(though, according to Rashi, who maintains that these stores are all used
for punishment, it is not clear why he should have done so).
(a) Arvos, a storehouse containing numerous treasures, is the most
multi-purpose of all the heavens. It contains righteousness, justice,
charity and stores of life, of peace and of blessing, and based on the
The Pasuk which describes the darkness that surrounds Hashem refers to
Hashem's outer chambers - the Pasuk in Daniel which specifically writes "
... Yada Mah ba'Chashochah, u'Nehora Imei Shari" (implying that there is no
darkness with Hashem), to the inner chambers.
1. ... "ve'Haysah Nefesh Adoni Tzerurah bi'Tz'ror ha'Chayim es Hashem
Elokecha" - the Neshamos of Tzadikim.
(b) The Ofanim, Serafim, Chayos ha'Kodesh - and other ministering angels,
all reside in Arvos.
2. ... "Ki Ru'ach mi'Lefanai Ya'atof, u'Neshamos Asher Asisi" - the Ruchos
and the Neshamos that have yet to be created (which appears to refer to the
Ru'ach and the Neshamah, which, when added to the Nefesh, comprise the basic
spiritual make-up of every Jew - Rashi however, learns either that they are
one and the same, or that Ru'ach means the Soul and Neshamah, breath).
3. ... "Geshem Nedavos Tanif Elokim ... Ata Konantah" - the 'Tal shel
Techiyah' (the dew with which Hashem will eventually revive the dead).
(c) The Kisei ha'Kavod of the Living G-d dwells above them all - also in
Arvos. He is surrounded by three clouds comprising 'Choshech, Anan
(d) We learn this from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Solu le'Rochev ba'Aravos
be'Kah She'mo". We learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Rochev" "Rochev" from
the Pasuk in ve'Zos ha'Brachah "Rochev Shamayim be'Ezrecha" that Arvos is a