ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Chagigah 18
(a) Resh Lakish learns Tashlumin on Shavu'os very much like the Tana, but
from the Pasuk in Mishpatim "ve'Chag ha'Katzir ... " - which he interprets
to mean the Yom-Tov on which one harvests the corn (which refers, not to
Yom-Tov itself, on which harvesting is forbidden, but to the days of
Tashlumin following Shavu'os, as we explained above).
(b) Rebbi Yochanan refutes his proof however, from the Pasuk there "ve'Chag
ha'Asif ... " - which refers to Sukos, but cannot be explained in the same
way as Resh Lakish explains "ve'Chag ha'Katzir", because gathering the corn
from the granary is forbidden, even on Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos.
(c) "Chag ha'Katzir" and "Chag ha'Asif" must therefore mean - the Yom-Tov
which occurs in the harvest season and in the ingathering season,
(a) Rebbi Yashiya in a Beraisa learns from "es Chag ha'Matzos Tishmor" -
that it is Asur to work on Chol ha'Mo'ed (because every derivative of
'Shamor' is a La'av).
(b) Rebbi Yonasan learns the Isur Melachah on Chol ha'Mo'ed from a 'Kal
va'Chomer' from the first and last days of Yom-Tov - because if the first
day of Yom-Tov is Asur, even though the previous day is not, and the last
day is Asur even though the day after is not, then the six days in between,
where the day before and the day after are Asur - should certainly be Asur.
(c) The six days of the week, which are also flanked by Shabbos on both
sides, yet they remain Chol - are different, because they do *not* have a
Korban Musaf like Chol ha'Mo'ed *does*.
(d) Rosh Chodesh (unlike the six days) does have a Korban Musaf, yet work is
permitted on Rosh Chodesh - because it is *not* called 'Mikra Kodesh' like
Chol ha'Mo'ed *is*.
(a) Rebbi Yossi Hagelili in another Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "Kol
Meleches Avodah Lo Sa'asu" (by Sukos) - that Chol ha'Mo'ed is Asur
We learned in our Mishnah that when Shavu'os falls on Shabbos, Hesped and
Ta'anis are permitted on Sunday (Yom-Tavo'ach). Rebbi Tarfon in a Beraisa
stopped the people from eulogizing Alaksa in Lod -on a Yom Tavo'ach which
did not fall on Sunday, but during the week.
(b) Rebbi Akiva claims that this Derashah is not necessary, because we
already know it from "Eileh Mo'adei Hashem", which cannot refer to the first
and last days of Yom-Tov - because the Torah has already written "Shabbason"
(c) In yet another Beraisa, the Tana learns the prohibition of working on
Chol ha'Mo'ed from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Sheishes Yamim Tochal Matzos,
u'va'Yom ha'Shevi'i Atzeres" - from which he Darshens that, just as the
seventh day is Asur bi'Melachah (as implied by the word "Atzeres"), so too,
are the six days (as we learn from the eighth of the thirteenth principles
in the Beraisa of Rebbi Yishmael).
(d) We know that some Melachos are permitted on Chol ha'Mo'ed - because the
Torah writes "u'va'Yom ha'Shevi'i Tishbos". Since the Torah gives no
indication which Melachos are permitted and which are forbidden, it clearly
leaves it to the Chachamim to decide which Melachos to forbid and which to
(a) 'Notlin la'Yadayim le'Chulin, u'le'Ma'aser ve'li'Terumah, u'le'Kodesh
Matbilin'. 'Notlin' means washing one's hands with a cup that contains a
Revi'is of water - 'Matbilin' means Toveling them in a Mikveh.
(b) (Mei) Chatas has a Chumra even over Kodesh - inasmuch as if one's hands
become Tamei, his whole body requires Tevilah.
(c) If someone Toveled for a higher Kedushah, his Tevilah is valid for a
lesser one - but if he Toveled for a lesser Kedushah, his Tevilah is not
valid for a higher one.
(d) All the Chumros mentioned in the Mishnah are Chumros de'Rabbanan.
(a) The Tana says that the clothes of ...
1. ... an Am ha'Aretz - are Tamei Medras for Perushin.
(b) This means that the clothes render Tamei the person concerned together
with the clothes that he is wearing.
2. ... Perushin (people who eat even their Chulin be'Taharah) - are Medras
for Terumah-eating Kohanim.
3. ... Terumah-eating Kohanim - are Medras for people who eat Kodesh.
4. ... people who eat Kodesh - are Medras for those who deal with the Chatas
(the ashes of the Parah Adumah).
(c) The reason for this Chumra is - because we suspect that his wife may
have sat on the clothes when she was a Nidah.
(d) The Tana says that the clothes of ...
1. ... Yossi ben Yoezer, the Chasid she'bi'Kehunah - were Medras for those
who ate Kodesh.
2. ... Yochanan ben Gudgoda, who ate his Chulin al Taharas ha'Kodesh all his
life - were Medras for those who handled Chatas.
(a) A non-Kohen who eats Terumah or Bikurim on purpose is Chayav Misah; by
mistake, he must add a fifth. When the Tana refers to them as 'Nechsei
Kohen' - he means that the Kohen has permission to betroth a woman with them
or to buy with their proceeds, slaves, land or non-Kasher animals (even
though these are not edible).
(b) In order to become Bateil - one Sa'ah of Terumah or Bikurim must fall
into a hundred Sa'ah of Chulin.
(c) They also require Netilas Yadayim and Ha'arev Shemesh - meaning that a
Tamei person who Toveled, must still wait until nightfall before becoming
permitted to eat them.
(d) The Tana concludes that none of these things apply to Ma'aser or to
Chulin. The fifth which the owner is obligated to add to Ma'aser has nothing
to do with the fifth of which we just spoke (regarding Terumah). It is a
fifth that the owner needs to add when redeeming it - which does certainly
not apply to Terumah, which cannot be redeemed anyway.
(a) The Ma'aser are we referring to throughout the Sugya - is Ma'aser
(b) Ma'aser Sheini money - can only be used to purchase food.
(c) The lowest level of Tum'ah that Ma'aser Sheini fruit can attain - is
(d) One is permitted to eat Ma'aser - immediately after Toveling.
(a) The Beraisa clashes with our Mishnah, inasmuch as - it exempts both
Ma'aser and Chulin from Netilas Yadayim, whereas our Mishnah obligates them
(b) To resolve the discrepancy by Ma'aser, we establish the Beraisa like
Rebbi Meir and our Mishnah like the Chachamim, who compare Ma'aser to
Terumah. When Rebbi Meir says ...
1. ... 'Kol ha'Ta'un Bi'as Mayim mi'Divrei Sofrim ... ' - he means those
foods that are Tahor min ha'Torah, but on which the Rabbanan decreed Tum'ah
(as listed in the first chapter of Shabbos).
(c) He remains permitted to eat Chulin and Ma'aser.
2. ... 'Metamei es ha'Kodesh u'Posel es ha'Terumah' - he means that they
have the Din of a Sheini le'Tum'ah, to make whatever they touch a Sh'lishi,
which is considered Tamei by Kodesh (because it can still make a Revi'i),
but Pasul by Terumah (since there is no Revi'i by Terumah).
(d) To resolve the discrepancy by Chulin, we try to establish our Mishnah
with regard to *eating*, which requires washing, and the Beraisa, with
regard to touching, which does not (both according to the Rabbanan). Rav
Shimi bar Ashi has a problem with this answer, however - because Rebbi Meir
and the Rabbanan only argue by eating Ma'aser, but not by touching Ma'aser
or by eating Chulin (which, both agree, do not require Netilas Yadayim - so
why does the Beraisa require washing for touching Ma'aser, and our Mishnah
for eating Chulin).
(a) We finally establish our Mishnah (which requires washing for Chulin) by
bread - and the Beraisa (which does not), by fruit.
Rav Nachman establishes the Beraisa which *requires* Kavanah for washing
one's hands or for Toveling them by Ma'aser - and the Beraisa which does
*not*, by Chulin.
(b) Rebbi Meir and the Rabbanan now argue about - whether fruit of Ma'aser
Netilas Yadayim: according to Rebbi Meir, it does not, according to the
Rabbanan, it does.
(c) Rav Nachman describes someone who washes for Chulin fruits - as