ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Chulin 63
CHULIN 61-63 - sponsored by Dr. Lindsay A. Rosenwald of Lawrence NY, in
honor of his father, David ben Aharon ha'Levy Rosenwald of blessed memory.
(a) Rav Yehudah describes ...
1. ... 'Shalach' (a cormorant) as - a bird that catches fish from the sea
(because it is a derivative of 'ha'*Sholeh* Dagim min ha'Yam').
(b) This is borne out by a Beraisa - which also attributes to the Duchifas
the bringing of the Shamir worm to the Beis-Hamikdash (to cut some of the
2. ... 'Duchifas' (a wild peacock) as - a bird with a double comb (on its
head [because it is the acronym of 'Hodo Kafus']).
(c) When Rebbi Yochanan saw a cormorant, he would cite the Pasuk
"Mishpatecha ki'Tehom Rabah". If this describes the Shalach, whom Hashem
delegated to punish the fish of His choice, and the Pasuk "Tzidkascha
ke'Harerei Keil", when he saw an ant - to acknowledge that Hashem feeds even
the minutest of creatures.
(d) Alternatively, we might explain - that Hashem troubles the cormorant to
work hard for its sustenance, whereas the ant finds its sustenance without
(a) Ameimar permits Likni and Botni. Shakna'i and Batna'i, he says, depends
upon Minhag - depending on whether the Peres and Ozniyah reside there (in
which case they are Asur, since both possess one Simon) or not (and they are
permitted), as we learned earlier.
(b) Abaye declares Ku'i and Kaku'i Asur, but permits Kakvasa. Whereas in
Eretz Yisrael - they would give Malkos to someone who ate Kakvasa.
(a) "Tinshemes" is both a Sheretz and a bird. In the former case - it is a
mole, in the latter - an owl (or a bat).
(b) We know that one is a bird and one, a Sheretz - because the word appears
once in the the Parshah of birds, and once in the Parshah of Sheratzim (and
we have a principle that the Torah presents things according to their topics
('Davar ha'Lameid mi'Inyano').
(c) The Beraisa describes both of the above as - the ugliest of their
(d) When Abaye says 'Ba'os she'be'Ofos Kifuf, Ba'os she'bi'Sheratzim
Kurpeda'i' - he is merely mimicking the Beraisa, but in Aramaic.
(a) Rav Yehudah translates "Ka'as" and "Racham" as 'pelican' and 'magpie',
respectively. The latter is ...
1. ... called 'Racham', says Rebbi Yochanan - because it is a harbinger of
Divine mercy to the world.
(b) Rav Bibi bar Abaye explains that its Midah of Rachamim is only manifest
when it sits on something and chirps. Based on the Pasuk "Asharkah Lahem
Va'akabtzem", he adds that if it was to sit on the floor and chirp -
Mashi'ach would come at once.
2. ... also known as 'Sherakrak' - because when it chirps, it sounds as if
it is saying 'Sherakrak'.
(c) When a certain bird sat on a furrow and chirped - a marble stone fell
from Heaven and cracked its brain.
(d) When Rav Ada bar Shimi asked Mar bar Rav Ada'i why Mashi'ach did not
come instead, he replied - that the bird was an imposter, pretending to be a
magpie when it wasn't.
(a) We learn in a Beraisa "Orev", 'Zeh Orev'. "Kol Orev", 'Zeh Orev
ha'Amaki'. From "le'Miyno" - he includes a raven with a dove's head.
(b) The problem with the Lashon "Orev", 'Zeh Orev' is - that unless the Tana
was holding a raven in his hand (or pointing at one), his statement makes no
(c) We therefore amend the Beraisa to read - "Orev", 'Zeh Orev Uchma' (to
pertain to a black raven [based on the Pasuk in Shir ha'Shirim "Kevutzosav
Taltalim Shechoros ka'Orev"]).
(d) We interpret 'Orev *ha'Amaki'* as a white raven - on the basis of the
Pasuk in Tazri'a 'u"Mar'ehu *Amok* min ha'Or' (which teaches us that
something that is bright always looks deeper than something dark.
(e) Rav Papa explains 'ha'Ba be'Roshei Yonim' - to mean (not that the raven
actually had the head of a dove, but that it bore a resemblance to it).
(a) Another Beraisa states "ha'Netz", 'Zeh ha'Netz'. We do not ask the same
question as we asked on the previous Beraisa ('Atu Kaman Ka'i' - because
here, since the Tana is not including any other kind (like it did by Orev)
the Tana is simply saying that this is the only bird that is called Netz.
(b) There is no difference between the Tana, who explains "le'Miyno" by Netz
to include bar Chiraya and Abaye, who includes Shurinka - the latter is
merely giving the Aramaic term for the former.
(c) "Chasidah" is a stork. Rav Yehudah bases ...
1. ... its name - on the fact that it performs Chesed with its friends
(perhaps it provides them with food).
2. ... the name "Anafah" - on the fact that it makes its friends angry (as
is implied by its other name 'Dayah Ragzanis').
(a) Rav Chanan bar Rav Chisda ... Amar Rav Chanan B'rei de'Rava Amar Rav
states that there are twenty-four Tamei birds. Rav Chanan bar Rav Chisda
queried this. The number of Tamei birds listed ...
1. ... in Shemini is - twenty.
(b) Bearing in mind that in Shemini the Torah includes "Da'ah and Ayah", and
in Re'ei "Ra'ah Ayah and Dayah", Rav Chanan bar Rav Chisda initially believe
we now have - twenty-two Tamei birds (twenty in Shemini plus Ra'ah and Dayah
2. ... in Re'ei is - twenty-one.
(c) When Rav Chisda de'Rav Chisda quoted to his son (Rav Chanan) his
mother's father, he was referring to his own father-in-law, Rav Chanan bar
(a) From the two times "le'Miynah", once "le'Miyno" and once "le'Miynehu"
written in connection with "Anafah", "Ra'ah", "Ayah" and "Dayah"
respectively, Rav learned - the missing four Tamei birds.
(b) The problem with this explanation is - that we will then have twenty-six
Tamei birds and not twenty-four?
(c) We prove that Ra'ah and Da'ah are one and the same bird - because
Devarim comes to add things that are missing (not to omit things that are
written), so it would make no sense to insert Ra'ah by omitting Da'ah.
(d) Abaye accounts for the fact that there are twenty-four Tamei birds and
not twenty-five - by concluding that just as Ra'ah and Da'ah are one and the
same, so too, are Ayah and Dayah ...
(e) ... from the fact that the Torah writes "le'Miynah" by Ayah in Shemini,
and by Dayah (and not Ayah) in Re'ei.
(a) The Torah sees fit to insert both ...
1. ... Da'ah (in Shemini) and Ra'ah (in Re'ei) - to prevent a situation
whereby people who live in a place where the bird is called Ra'ah permit it,
based on the argument that the Torah forbids another bird called Da'ah (and
not Ra'ah [or vice-versa]).
(b) The Pasuk in Re'ei adds - the Shesu'ah to the list of Tamei animals.
2. ... Ayah and Dayah (in Re'ei) - to avoid a situation where someone
permits a bird that he calls Ayah, based on the argument that the Torah
forbade Dayah (and not Ayah [or vice-versa]), as Rebbi explained in a
(a) With reference to the Parshah in Re'ei, according to the Beraisa, the
Torah repeats the Din of ...
1. ... the animals - because of She'su'ah, which is not mentioned in
(b) Based on the Chidush regarding Shesu'ah, we expect to explain - that
Ra'ah too, is the name of a bird that has not been mentioned before (a
Kashya on Abaye and Rav).
2. ... the birds - because of Ra'ah, which is not mentioned in Shemini
(c) To refute the Kashya, Rav will explain - that even though "Shesu'ah" is
coming to teach us the name of a new Tamei animal, "Ra'ah" is coming to
teach us another name for "Da'ah", as we explained.
(a) Rebbi Avahu disagrees with Rav and Rav Chisda. According to Rebbi Avahu,
Ra'ah and Ayah are one and the same, and it is called 'Ra'ah' - because of
its phenomenal eyesight.
(b) According to the Beraisa, it is able to see carrion in Eretz Yisrael -
from as far away as Bavel.
(c) We think that Rav Avahu must hold that Ra'ah and Da'ah are two different
birds - because based on the premise that he holds like Rav, if Ra'ah is
synonymous with Ayah, it cannot at the same time be synonymous with Da'ah
(because then there will not be twenty-four birds).
(d) Based on this assumption, the problem with the fact that the Torah
1. ... "Ra'ah" in Shemini and "Da'ah" in Re'ei - is why the Pasuk omits
Ra'ah in Re'ei (as we explained above).
(e) This forces us to conclude - that according to Rebbi Avahu, Ra'ah,
Da'ah, Ayah and Dayah are all one and the same, and that there are only
twenty-three Tamei birds, and not twenty-four (as Rav maintains).
2. ... "le'Miyno" by Ayah in Shemini, and by Dayah in Re'ei is - why it does
not write "le'Miyno" by Ayah in Re'ei.
(a) Isi ben Yehudah in a Beraisa refers to a hundred kinds of Tamei birds in
the east - which he states, are all species of Ayah.
(b) Avimi b'rei de'Rav Avahu cites a Beraisa which speaks of seven hundred
species of fish - and eight hundred species of locusts.
(c) The Beraisa concludes 'u'le'Ofos Ein Mispar'. The problem with that is -
that, assuming that the Tana is referring to Tamei species, from where does
he find 'numerous species', when the Torah lists only twenty-four.
(d) To solve the problem, we establish the Beraisa - by Kasher species.
(a) Rebbi in a Beraisa explains that the Torah lists the Kasher animals on
the one hand, but the Tamei birds on the other - because Hashem knows that
there are more Tamei species of animals, but more species of Tahor birds.
(b) The Torah lists - the Kasher Chayos.
(c) Rebbi is really coming to teach us the Chidush of Rav Huna Amar Rav (who
was perhaps quoting Rebbi Meir), who states that when teaching a Talmid -
one should always be brief and concise.
(d) Rebbi Yitzchak permits eating any species of bird only if one has a
tradition - either by having seen a reliable Yisrael eating it, or by having
heard it from one's Rebbe or from an expert hunter.
(a) Rebbi Yitzchak rules - that a hunter is believed if he testifies that
his Rebbe taught him that a certain species of bird is Kasher.
(b) Rebbi Yochanan qualifies this latter statement - by confining it to
where his Rebbi was an expert both in the names of the animals and in the
animals themselves (i.e. that he was able to identify them).
(c) Rebbi Zeira was not sure - whether the 'Rebbe' to which Rebbi Yitzchak
referred was the hunter's Torah Rebbe or his hunting tutor.
(d) We resolve this quandary from Rebbi Yochanan - who required the Rebbe to
be an expert in the animals as well as in their names, something which one
could hardly expect from a Talmid-Chacham.
(a) The Beraisa - permits purchasing eggs from a Nochri anywhere.
(b) We are not concerned about - Neveilos or Tereifos.
(c) To answer the Kashya that maybe the eggs were laid by a Tamei bird,
Shmuel's father establishes the case where the seller named the Kasher bird
that laid them, and we believe him - because he knows that we can check
whether he told the truth or not.
(d) It will not however, suffice for him just to say that the birds were
laid by a Kasher bird - because whichever bird we check on, he will always
be able to say that these eggs came from a different species.