ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Chulin 88
CHULIN 86-90 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor.
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(a) The Beraisa learns that blood that squirts on the ground and blood that
sticks to the knife require covering, from - "Ve'chisahu" (as we will
(b) Another Beraisa includes (in the Din of Kisuy) from "Vechisahu". blood
that squirts on to the ground and 'Dam she'al Agapayim' - which is blood
that squirts on to the walls of the abattoir.
(c) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel qualifies the Tana Kama's ruling - by
confining it to where they did not cover the Dam ha'Nefesh.
(d) The Chachamim interpret "Damo" to mean all its blood, whereas according
1. ... Rebbi Yehudah it means - some of the blood.
2. ... Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, it means - its principle (life) blood.
(a) Our Mishnah lists the things that are, and that are not, eligible to
cover with. One may use soft dung, thin sand, lime, ground earthenware and
a brick and the lid of a barrel that have been pounded - but not thick dung
or sand, or a brick or lid of a barrel that have not been pounded.
(b) One may not use an overturned receptacle to cover the blood.
(c) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel states - that anything in which plants grow,
is eligible to cover with.
(a) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan defines 'thin sand' as - sand
that a potter does not need to grind.
(b) When we say that some quote Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan on
the Seifa, we mean - than they refer to the statement disqualifying thick
sand, which Rebbi Yochanan defines as sand that a potter does need to grind.
(c) The difference between the two versions is - sand that is fairly thick,
which can be broken by hand, which is eligible according to the first
version (since it refers to it as thin sand), but not eligible according to
the second version (since it refers to it as thick sand).
(a) The Beraisa learns from the fact that the Pasuk writes "be'Afar" - that
one must use something that falls under the category of 'earth' with which
to cover the blood, and not stones or an overturned receptacle.
(b) Had the Torah written 'u've'Afar Yechasenu' - Kisuy ha'Dam would have
been restricted to real earth (exclusively).
(c) And from the fact that the Torah writes "Ve'chisehu be'Afar", the Tana
now Darshens - that one may use anything that falls under the category of
earth (such as those contained in the first list in the Mishnah [even
though it is not real earth]).
(a) The latter Beraisa adds to the Mishnah's list of what is eligible for
Kisuy ha'Dam and what is not. The Tana incorporates ...
1. ... ground stones, ground clay, fine shavings of flax and of saw-dust in
the list of things that are eligible, and ...
(b) The Tana incorporates the former list in the first list in the Mishnah
- because they fall under the category of 'earth', and the latter in the
second list - because they do not.
2. ... ground metal vessels, flour, oats and bran in the list of things
that are not.
(a) We ask that "Ve'chisahu" should be a 'Klal', and "be'Afar" a 'P'rat' -
and we have a principle 'Ein bi'Ch'lal Ela Mah she'bi'P'rat' (the 'K'lal'
is confined to the 'P'rat' [in which case, one would only be permitted to
cover with earth]).
(b) Rav Mari answers - that this case is different, because the 'K'lal'
itself incorporates two opposite kinds of commodities, a. something
complete (like an overturned vessel) and something comprising broken
particles (like earth). Consequently, we need the P'rat to indicate which
one to preclude from the K'lal.
(c) We Darshen a 'K'lal u'P'rat' - in a case where the K'lal incorporates
various details of the same kind, in which case the P'rat will preclude
(a) Rav Nachman bar Rav Chisda rules that for Kisuy ha'Dam, one may only
use earth in which seeds will grow - precluding desert sand in which
(b) When Rava referred to that as a joke - Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak told
him that it was not funny, and that, in fact, it was he who had told taught
it to him.
(c) In the Beraisa that he cited as his source (that desert sand is not
eligible for Kisuy ha'Dam), the Tana advises someone traveling ...
1. ... in a desert, who has no earth to perform Kisuy ha'Dam - to grind a
golden Dinar and cover the blood with the dust.
(d) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Afros Zahav Lo" - that ground gold-dust is
2. ... in a ship, who has no earth to perform Kisuy ha'Dam - to burn his
coat and use the ashes to cover the blood.
(a) With regard to the Beraisa's earlier case, the Torah refer to ashes as
'Afar' - in Chukas (in connection with the Parah Adumah) "me'Afar Sereifas
The Tana Kama of another Beraisa adds Shichor, K'chol and Nikras Pisulin to
the list of things that are eligible for Kisuy ha'Dam, and 'Yesh Omrim,
Zarnich' (arsenic). 'Shichor' is ground charcoal ...
(b) This is the opinion of Beis Hillel in another Beraisa. According to
Beis Shamai, only Afar is eligible, and not Eifer ...
(c) ... because even if ashes are called 'Afar Sereifah', they are not
called 'Afar' S'tam.
1. ... 'K'chol' is - a material which produces a blue eye-paint.
2. ... 'Nikras Pisulin' is - flour dust from a mill.
(a) According to Rava, because Avraham said "ve'Anochi Afar va'Eifer" - his
descendants merited Afar Parah and Afar Sotah.
(b) Rava omitted Afar Kisuy ha'Dam - because it is a Hechsher Mitzvah
without any physical benefits (since the meat is permitted whether one
performs Kisuy ha'Dam or not).
(c) Afar Parah renders a Tamei person Tahor - whereas Afar Sotah creates
Shalom between a man and his wife.