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Introduction to EruvinEruvin 2
ERUVIN 2 - has been dedicated by Mr. Meir Brachfeld (Antwerp/Yerushalayim)
to the memory of his parents, Reb Yechezkel Shraga ben Dovid Yitzchak and
Reizel bas Shmuel.
INTRODUCTION TO MASECHES ERUVIN
[I] THE 4 RESHUYOS OF SHABBOS
There are four Reshuyos (domains) with regard to the Halachos of Shabbos:
Reshus ha'Rabim; Reshus ha'Yachid; Karmelis; Makom Petur.
(a) RESHUS HA'RABIM (the public domain) includes 16 Amah wide thoroughfares
or streets which are open at both ends, and open plazas that can hold many
people at the same time. (According to some Rishonim, 600,000 people must
use the area for it to be considered Reshus ha'Rabim, see Insights to
(b) RESHUS HA'YACHID (the private domain) is comprised of areas that have an
area of at least four by four Tefachim and are enclosed by a ten Tefach high
partition on at least three sides, such as enclosed yards, or ditches with
these dimensions (since the vertical wall of the ditch acts as a partition).
A ten Tefach high mound that is 4 by 4 Tefachim wide at its top is also a
Reshus ha'Yachid. Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid are Reshuyos which
are recognized by the Torah. Transferring from one to the other is
(c) KARMELIS is the term that the Rabanan gave to certain places and objects
that bear similarities to both Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid, even
though they do not meet all the requirements for either of them. The Rabanan
decreed that a Karmelis is to be given the properties of both Reshus
ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid, whichever is more stringent in any given
situation, in order to prevent a person from doing a Melachah mid'Oraisa.
Some examples of Karmelis are the sea, a desert, and an area in Reshus
ha'Rabim that is four by four Tefachim but with a height not greater than
ten Tefachim, such as a raised platform, pole, or fenced in area.
(d) MAKOM PETUR, in general, are those places and objects that do not
fulfill *any* of the above requirements. Transferring from them to one of
the other three Reshuyos is permitted (as long as one does not transfer from
Reshus ha'Yachid to a Makom Petur, and then from there to a Reshus ha'Rabim,
or v.v.). Some examples of Makom Petur are a doorstep with an area less than
four by four Tefachim, a pole in Reshus ha'Rabim with an area less than four
by four Tefachim and a height not greater than ten Tefachim and the air
above Reshus ha'Rabim (above a height of ten Tefachim). See Shabbos, Charts
(By Torah law, there is no such thing as a Karmelis. Every Karmelis is
defined by the Torah as a Makom Petur.)
[II] HETER MAVOY V'CHATZER
(a) A *Mavoy* is an alleyway which is enclosed on three sides, through which
the people of the surrounding courtyards must pass in order to go out to the
street (Reshus ha'Rabim). Although mid'Oraisa such a Mavoy is a Reshus
ha'Yachid, nevertheless, the Chachamim prohibited carrying objects in a
Mavoy a distance of four Amos or more. This decree was enacted because of
its similarity to a Reshus ha'Rabim, since many families make use of a
single Mavoy. (The source of the word Mavoy is the word Mevo ha'Ir (Shoftim
1:24), meaning the *entrance* to the city.)
(b) Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a *Lechi* is placed vertically
against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi is a pole,
plank, or other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves as a
Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal the border of
Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid so that people do not transfer objects
from the Mavoy to the adjacent Reshus ha'Rabim. (Eruvin 5a, 15a)
(c) Another method to permit carrying in a Mavoy is with a *Korah* (a beam,
one Tefach wide). The Korah is placed horizontally across the top of the
entrance to the Mavoy, and serves as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a
Heker (reminder) to signal the border of Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus
ha'Yachid so that people do not transfer objects from the Mavoy to the
adjacent Reshus ha'Rabim (see Insights to Eruvin 2a, and Graphic #1).
(d) The Lechi and Korah must be used in conjunction with a *Shituf* (see
below) to permit carrying within the Mavoy.
(a) A Chatzer is the courtyard into which private dwellings enter. Like a
Mavoy, the Chachamim prohibited carrying in a Chatzer which has an opening
into Reshus ha'Rabim.
3) DEFINING A MAVOY AND A CHATZER - Not every Mavoy which has courtyards
opening to it is given the status of Mavoy with regard to the laws of Lechi
and Korah. In order for a Mavoy to be permitted with a Lechi or Korah, it
must fulfill three conditions:
(b) They permitted carrying in such a Chatzer by way of placing a plank
("Pas") at least four Tefachim wide next to one of the walls at the
entrance of the Chatzer that opens to Reshus ha'Rabim. The plank is placed
perpendicular to the wall of the Chatzer, such that it extends into the
entranceway between Reshus ha'Rabim and the Chatzer (see Graphic #1).
(c) Essentially, the "Pas" of a Chatzer is identical to the "Lechi" of a
Mavoy, except that the Lechi has no set width, while the Pas must be at
least 4 Tefachim.
(a) Its length (= the distance it extends away from Reshus ha'Rabim) must
exceed its width.
4) MECHITZOS - Carrying is permitted in a Mavoy or Chatzer only if it has 3
complete walls. These walls need not be physical walls, as long as they are
defined Halachically, by way of Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, as walls.
Examples of such Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai are Lavud, Gud Achis, Gud Asik,
Tzuras ha'Pesach, small breaches in the wall which do not add up to most of
the wall (Omed Merubah), etc., each of which will b'Ezras Hashem be
explained in it proper place.
(b) It must have at least two courtyards opening to it.
(c) Each of the two courtyards that open two it must have at least 2 houses
in it. (Eruvin 5a)
Any Mavoy which does not meet these three conditions is equivalent to a
Chatzer, and must have a 4 Tefach plank at its entrance to allow carrying in
[III] ERUV CHATZEIROS AND SHITUF MAVO'OS
(a) THE TORAH LAW - According to Torah law, in a courtyard (Chatzer) which
has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may
transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on
Shabbos. Even though each house is a separate Reshus ha'Yachid, it is
permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another. Such is
also the case when several *courtyards* open on a dead-end alley (Mavoy -
the Rabanan enacted that a Mavoy must have a Lechi or Korah, see above), or
when an entire city is walled. (RAMBAM Hilchos Eruvin 1:1)
(b) ERUV AND SHITUF - King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from one
Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden, unless an *Eruv Chatzeiros* (lit.
a mixing of the courtyard, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6; or fraternization of the
courtyard, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins. (Shabbos
14b, Eruvin 21b). (The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeiros for an alley or a
city is called a *Shituf Mavo'os*.) This is accomplished by all of the
neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common
container, in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf,
in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This shows that all neighbors
have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have
a share in that bread. Through this act, they can be considered one Reshus
again. (An Eruv Chatzeros uses bread. A Shituf is not limited to bread; any
food may be used except for water, salt and mushrooms.) (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)
(c) BITUL RESHUYOS - In the event that the inhabitants of the courtyard did
not set an Eruv Chatzeiros before Shabbos, carrying may still be permitted
if *Bitul Reshuyos* is done. All of the inhabitants of the courtyard nullify
their domains in favor of one of the inhabitants. All of the
houses/courtyards in the area are considered the private domain of the
person chosen. Bitul Reshuyos may be done as long as the following
conditions are met: (1) the nullification is done only in favor of *one*
person. If more people are involved, the area is not considered one private
domain; (2) the other inhabitants do not transfer objects from their houses
to the courtyard or vice versa. Bitul Reshuyos only permits carrying in the
courtyard and from the courtyard to the house of the person chosen. If one
of the houseowners (other than the one in whose favor the Bitul was done)
transfers from his house to the courtyard or vice versa, it constitutes a
repeal of the nullification. It becomes once again prohibited to carry in
[IV] ERUV TECHUMIM
(a) A person is only allowed to travel a distance of 2000 Amos from his city
or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos. If he wants to travel
another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b) This is accomplished by placing an amount of one food that would be used
for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the
direction in which he wishes to travel. The location where his food is
placed is considered his new dwelling for that Shabbos, and he may travel
2000 Amos in any direction from there.
[V] ERUV TAVSHILIN
The third type of "Eruv" is Eruv Tavshilin, which is prepared when Yom Tov
immediately precedes Shabbos. This is not the subject of our Maseches, and
we will discuss it in its proper place, b'Ezras Hashem.
1) [line 1] MAVOY (MAVOY: LECHI/KORAH)
See Introduction to Maseches Eruvin, [II]:1).
2) [line 9] TAKANTA - rectification
*3*) [line 9] MAVOY D'RABANAN, TANI TAKANTA - (a) By a Rabbinic
institution, the Mishnah must first tell us *what* to do, before it tells us
what the Halachah is if one does *not* do it. By a Torah law this is not
necessary, since the Torah itself has already outlined what to do. (RASHI);
(b) Alternatively, by a Rabbinic law it is acceptable for the Mishnah to use
a term besides "Pasul," even though there is a possibility that people will
mistake this to mean that the law only applies l'Chatchilah. By a Torah law
this is not acceptable (TOSFOS)
4) [line 11] NEFISHIN MILEI - there are many laws pertaining to it that are
taught in the Mishnah (Sukah 2a)
5) [line 14] PISCHO SHEL HEICHAL - The Ulam (Entrance Hall) of the Beis
ha'Mikdash stood before the Heichal (Main Sanctuary). The entrance from the
Ulam to the Heichal was 10 Amos wide and 20 Amos high. It had 2 sets of
doors, one at either end of the 6 Amos thickness of wall.
6) [line 15] PISCHO SHEL ULAM - The entrance to the Ulam was 20 Amos wide
and 40 Amos high. Instead of doors, an embroidered curtain hung there.
7) [line 28] "EL PESACH ULAM HA'BAYIS" - There is no verse that contains
these exact words. According to Tosfos, the Gemara is referring to two
verses at once: "Ulam ha'Bayis" (Yechezkel 40:48), and "Pesach ha'Bayis"
(Yechezkel 47:1). By combination, it is as if "Pesach Ulam Ha'bayis" were
written in one verse. (The objection of Rabanan is that the verse *also*
states "Ulam ha'Bayis,"). (Tosfos DH d'Chsiv)
8) [line 3] PESACH SHA'AR HE'CHATZER - the twenty-Amos-wide entrance of the
Courtyard that surrounded the Ohel Mo'ed
9) [line 4] "ORECH HE'CHATZER ME'AH VA'AMAH, V'ROCHAV CHAMISHIM
BA'CHAMISHIM, V'KOMAH CHAMESH AMOS SHESH MASHZAR; V'ADNEIHEM NECHOSES" -
"The length of the Courtyard shall be 100 Amos, and its width shall be 50
Amos by 50 Amos (i.e. the open space within the Courtyard *in front* of the
Mishkan shall be 50 X 50 Amos), the height shall measure 5 Amos [of
curtains] of twined linen, and the sockets [of all of the posts of the
Courtyard] shall be made of copper" (Shmos 27:18)
10) [line 6] "V'CHAMESH ESREI AMAH KE'LA'IM LA'KASEF" - "The curtains on one
side of the entrance shall be 15 Amos long" (ibid. 27:14)
11) [line 10] PESACH SHA'AR HE'CHATZER IKRI - it is called the "Pesach"
(gateway) *of the Courtyard* (and not a standard "Pesach")
12) [line 26] AT'ISEI - misled him
13) [line 30] PISCHA D'MALCHIN - the doorways of kings' palaces
14) [line 39] MIDI HU TA'AMA ELA L'RAV - are we not trying to explain the
reasoning of Rav (who says that the basis of Chachamim's ruling is the size
of the entrance of the Heichal)?