ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafEruvin 16
ERUVIN 16-20 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
(a) Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua will explain this Beraisa (which
invalidates Parutz ke'Omed) - like he explained the previous one - i.e. when
the spaces referred to are liberal ones.
(b) A space of three Tefachim is considered a breach, less than that, not -
because a breach of three Tefachim negates 'Levud'. Why? Because a kid-goat
can get through, and whenever a kid-goat can get through, we do not say
'Levud'. However, if the breaches are less than three Tefachim, the wall
remains Kasher even if the breaches exceed the wall, since 'Levud' joins the
sections of wall as if there was no breach.
(c) 1. We have just described a wall whose sections are less than three
Tefachim; 2. A wall whose sections are between three and four Tefachim is
Kasher provided the breaches are not slightly more than the standing part of
the wall - if they *are*, then the entire wall is Pasul; 3. A wall whose
sections are between four Tefachim and ten Amos, remains Kasher provided the
breaches are not slightly more that the standing part of the wall - if they
*are*, then the part of the wall where the breaches are, is Pasul, the rest
of the wall is Kasher; 4. A wall which contains a breach of more than ten
Amos invalidates the entire wall.
(d) A breach of ten Amos - is considered an entrance, more than that is not.
(a) A breach even of more than ten Amos is Kasher - if it is in the form of
a Tzuras ha'Pesach - i.e. if it has a cross-beam lying across the top.
(b) The above Beraisa is related to Kil'ayim.
(c) Rav Papa explains the phrase (written with regard to the Din of between
three and four Tefachim) 'u'Bilevad she'Lo Yehei Bein Zeh la'Zeh ke'Milu'o'
- like he explained earlier Beraisos - namely, when the space referred to is
a liberal one.
(d) The Gemara proves this answer from the next case in the Beraisa, which
reads 'Im Hayah Omed Merubeh al ha'Parutz, Af Keneged ha'Parutz Mutar' -
from which we can infer 'Ha ke'Parutz, Mutar'.
(a) The Beraisa continues 've'Im Hayah Omed Merubah al ha'Parutz, Af
Keneged ha'Parutz Mutar' - in order to balance the Reisha which writes
'Parutz Merubeh al ha'Omed'.
(b) Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua applies the reverse logic: according to
him, the Beraisa writes 've'Im Hayah Parutz Merubeh al ha'Omed' etc. in the
Reisha, because of the Seifa, where it wants to write ''ve'Im Hayah *Omed
Merubah al ha'Parutz' etc.
(c) The Tana does not combine the Din of *less* than three Tefachim wall
with that of three Tefachim, according to Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua, in
spite of the fact that, in both cases, a breach of exactly three Tefachim
will negate the wall - because the reason for the one is not the same as
that of the other: the reason for the former being Pasul is because kid-
goats can get through, so that we do not say Levud; whereas the reason for
the Pesul by the latter is because 'Parutz ke'Omed, Pasul'.
(a) Abaye explains that the author of the entire Beraisa is the Rabbanan -
Whereas the Shiur of Levud is three Tefachim, to forbid carrying by the wall
(on account of a breach of Parutz ke'Omed),he contends, the gauge is up to
four Tefachim (which is considered a Makom Chashuv).
(b) Rava equates Makom Chashuv with the Din of Levud. Consequently, the Din
of Levud extends to just under four Tefachim, which is not a Makom Chashuv.
That does not apply however, to a space near the ground. There, Raban Shimon
ben Gamliel will agree that Levud only extends as far as just under *three*
Tefachim, because of the principle of 'Gedayim Bok'in Bo' (which explains
the Reisha of the Beraisa).
(c) We rule like Rav Papa, in spite of the Beraisa that requires 'Omed
Merubeh al ha'Parutz' - due to the fact that our Mishnah implies that Parutz
ke'Omed, Mutar (as we explained at the beginning of the Sugya, on Daf 15b)
(a) To enclose an area with three ropes - one needs to place them at a
fraction under three Tefachim between each rope, with the three ropes adding
to just over one Tefach - to make a total height of ten Tefachim.
(b) A Mechitzas Arev - would consist of posts ten Tefachim high, stuck into
the ground at intervals of less than three Tefachim apart.
(c) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah holds - that any Mechitzah which does
consist of Shesi and Arev is not considered a Mechitzah.
(a) There is no proof from our Mishnah, which permits a Mechitzas Arev
consisting of three ropes - that Omed Merubeh al ha'Parutz is Kasher by a
Mechitzas Arev, because the Mechitzas Arev of ropes is Kasher there because
of Levud, and Levud is considered as if it was completely closed. Rav
Humnuna's Sha'aleh, on the other hand, is in a case where the sections of
wall as well as the breaches, are more than three Tefachim (where Levud does
(b) Had the Mishnah permitted three thin ropes including two spaces of just
under three Tefachim, and the third space of just under *four* Tefachim -
that would be Kasher due to the Omed (of six Tefachim) being more than the
Merubeh - which would resolve Rav Hamnuna's Sha'aleh.
(c) If the space of just under four Tefachim would be ...
1. ... at the bottom - it would be Pasul because 'Gedayim Bok'in Bo'.
2. ... at the top - it would be Pasul because the space from the top rope up
to the sky would combine with the more than three Tefachim space below it,
to negate the rope.
3. ... in the middle - we could only say Omed Merubeh al ha'Parutz by
combining the Omed on both sides (and this nobody would suggest to be
(a) The mat of which we are speaking was placed - with the four Tefachim on
top, and the three cut-out Tefachim (with a thin strip still remaining) at
the bottom fixed within three Tefachim of the ground. Rav Hamnuna's Sha'aleh
is now whether this Mechitzah will be Kasher, whether a Mechitzas Arev will
be Kasher by means of 'Omed Merubeh al ha'Parutz'.
(b) According to Rav Ashi, it is obvious that maintains that a Mechitzas
Arev will be Kasher by means of 'Omed Merubeh al ha'Parutz'. Rav Hamnuna's
Sha'aleh is whether a Mechitzah Teluyah (a suspended Mechitzah) will be
Kasher if there is full ten Tefachim of Mechitzah, but it does not reach to
within three Tefachim from the ground - whether we say Omed Merubeh al
ha'Parutz vertically, like we say it horizontally).
(c) The Gemara concludes - that a Mechitzah Teluyah is a special concession
that applies exclusively to water.
(a) When Rebbi Yehudah confines a Mechitzah of Shesi or Arev to an
encampment - he is referring to allowing an unrestricted area. He will
however, agree, that a Mechitzas Shesi or Arev will permit carrying up to a
(b) Rebbi Yossi be'Rebbi Yehudah holds that any Mechitzah that does not
consist of both Shesi and Arev (even that of an encampment) is not
considered a Mechitzah - His father confines this to private Mechitzos, but
not to that of an encampment.
(c) The Rabbanan of Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah hold - that, in all cases, a
Mechitzas Shesi or Arev is effective for any area, even more a Beis Sasayim.
(a) If Shmuel permits one Beis Sasayim for one or for two people, and three
(six Sa'ah) for *three* - he will be ruling like Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi
Why does he not rule like the Rabbanan, asks Rav Nachman?
(b) He therefore amends Shmuel's statement to read that - one gives one or
two a Beis Sasayim, but for three people, one gives them an unlimited area
(c) Rav Nachman was not concerned that Shmuel should rule Rebbi Yossi
b'Rebbi Yehudah by one or two people, because Rebbi Yehudah only was of that
opinion (to forbid individuals - not in a traveling caravan - to walk in an
area more than a Beis Sasayim, by means of a Mechitzas Shesi or Arev). It
was by three people (who are considered a caravan) that Rav Nachman was
concerned that Shmuel should not rule like Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah.