POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Kesuvos 77
KESUVOS 75-80 - dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving
memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Mr Irving
Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is sorely
missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.
1) WHICH BLEMISHES NECESSITATE DIVORCE
(a) (Rav Nachman): A woman that has epileptic fits is
considered a hidden blemish.
2) MAJOR BLEMISHES
1. This is if it comes at fixed times; if not, it is as
an exposed blemish.
(b) (Mishnah): If blemishes arose in a man, we do not force
him to divorce his wife;
(c) R. Shimon Ben Gamliel says, this applies to small
blemishes; by big blemishes, we force him to divorce her.
(d) (Gemara): Rav Yehudah learns, the Mishnah says arose;
Chiya Bar Rav says, the text is were.
1. The opinion that says arose, all the more so were
she saw the blemish and accepted it.
(e) (Mishnah): R. Shimon Ben Gamliel says, this applies to
small blemishes; by big blemishes, we force him to
2. The opinion that says were, but arose, no.
1. This fits well according to the opinion that learns
(f) (R. Shimon Ben Gamliel): These are big blemishes: His eye
was blinded, his arm was cut off, his leg was broken.
2. Question: According to the opinion that learns were
- what difference does it make if they are small or
big - she saw them and accepted them!
3. Answer: She thought she could bear them; now she
sees that she cannot bear them.
(g) (Rav Acha Bar Yakov, citing R. Yochanan): The law is as
R. Shimon Ben Gamliel.
(h) (Rava): The law is as Chachamim.
(i) Question: Did R. Yochanan really say, the law (here) is
as R. Shimon Ben Gamliel?
1. (Rabah Bar Bar Chanah, citing R. Yochanan): The law
is always as R. Shimon Ben Gamliel in the Mishnayos,
except for 3 places: A co-signer, the case in
Tzidon, and bringing a later proof.
(j) Answer: These Amora'im argue regarding what R. Yochanan
(a) (Mishnah): A husband with any of the following blemishes,
we force him to divorce his wife: A leper, one with
Pulipus, a Mekametz, one who is Metzaref copper, and a
tanner, whether these preceded the marriage or came
during the marriage;
3) WHOM WE FORCE TO DIVORCE HIS WIFE
1. R. Meir says, regarding all of them, even if he
stipulated with her, she can say, I thought I could
bear it; now I see that I cannot bear it.
(b) There was a case in Tzidon of a wife of a tanner that
fell to Yibum to a tanner. Chachamim said, she can claim,
I could bear your brother, but not you.
2. Chachamim say, she is forced to bear it, except for
a leper, since this harms her.
(c) (Gemara) Question: What is Pulipus?
(d) Answer #1 (Shmuel): A smell which comes from the nose.
(e) Answer #2 (Beraisa): A smell which comes from the mouth.
1. Rav Asi switched the opinions, and gave a way to
remember who said which: 'Shmuel's mouth has not
ceased in this entire chapter of the Mishnah'.
(f) (Gemara) Question: What is Mekametz?
(g) Answer (Rav Yehudah): One who gathers dung of dogs.
(h) Question (Beraisa): Mekametz is a tanner.
1. Counter-question: The Mishnah lists both Mekametz
and Borsi (a tanner)!
(i) Answer: Tana'im argue on the meaning of Mekametz.
2. Response: That is not difficult - Mekametz is a
small tanner, Borsi is a big tanner!
3. The question from the Beraisa remains difficult on
1. (Beraisa): Mekametz is a tanner; some say, it is one
who gathers dung of dogs.
(j) Question: What is Metzaref copper?
(k) Answer #1 (Rav Ashi): One who smelts and makes copper
(l) Answer #2 (Rabah Bar Bar Chanah): One who quarries it
from its source.
1. Support (Beraisa): Metzaref is one who quarries
copper from its source.
(a) (Rav): One who says, I will not feed nor support my wife,
we force him to divorce her and pay her Kesuvah.
(b) R. Elazar said this in front of Shmuel.
1. Shmuel: Give Elazar barley to chew! Rather than
forcing the husband to divorce her, force him to
(c) (Rav Yehudah, citing Rav Asi): We only force a husband to
divorce his wife if she is forbidden to him.
i. Rav holds, a person cannot live with a snake in
one basket. (We do not force her to live with
an antagonizing husband.)
2. R. Binyamin Bar Yefet said as Rav, in the name of R.
3. R. Zeira: R. Elazar was given barley for teaching
1. Rav Yehudah: When I said this in front of Shmuel, he
said, such as a widow to a Kohen Gadol, a divorcee
or Chalutzah to a regular Kohen, a Mamzeres or
Nesinah to a Yisrael, a Bas Yisrael to a Nasin or
Mamzer - but a man who has been married for 10 years
without children, we do not force.
(d) (Mishnah): A husband with any of the following blemishes,
we force him to divorce his wife: A leper, one with
2. Rav Tachlifa citing Shmuel: Even a man who has been
married for 10 years without children, we do force!
1. This is not difficult on Rav Asi - he can say, the
Mishnah listed only cases where mid'Rabanan, we
force him to divorce her, not cases where mid'Oraisa
he must divorce her.
2. Question: According to Rav Tachlifa, the Mishnah
should have listed a man who has been married for 10
years without children!
3. Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): The men in the Mishnah, we
force them with lashes; a man who has been married
for 10 years without children, we only force with
i. Objection (R. Aba): "A slave will not fix his
ways through words".
4. Answer #2 (R. Aba): In both cases, he is forced with
lashes. In our Mishnah, if she wants to stay with
him, we do not force; the childless couple we force
in any case.
5. Objection: But the Mishnah lists a leper, and even
if she wants to stay with him, we do not allow this!
i. (Mishnah): Except for a leper, since he harms
6. Answer: By a leper, if she wants to remain with him
with witnesses (who will ensure that they do not
have relations), we allow her; a childless couple,
even if she wants to remain with him with witnesses,
we do not allow this.
(a) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): There are 24 types of lepers - by
all of them, relations are damaging; Ba'alei Ra'asan are
(b) Question: What causes it?
(c) Answer (Beraisa): One who has relations after
bloodletting, the children will be weak; if they have
relations after both let blood, the children will be
1. (Rav Papa): This only applies if they did not eat in
between; if they ate in between, there is no
(d) The signs of Ba'alei Ra'asan are: his eyes tear, his nose
drips, saliva comes from his mouth, and flies hover about
(e) Question: What is the cure?
(f) Answer (Abaye): Take mint, alum, bark of a nut tree,
shearings of leather, lily, and red date-shells, and cook
them together. Bring the sick one into a marble house; if
this is not available, into a house whose walls are 7 1/2
bricks thick. Pour 300 cups of the potion on his head,
until his skull softens. Cut the skull; put a myrtle leaf
under each leg of the insect, and remove it with tongs;
burn the insect.
1. If you do not burn it, it will return to him.
(g) R. Yochanan warned people to beware of the flies from
Ba'alei Ra'asan; R. Zeira would not sit in the wind with
them; R. Elazar would not enter the same tent as them; R.
Ami and R. Asi would not eat eggs that came from an alley
of Ba'alei Ra'asan.
(h) R. Yehoshua Ben Levi would cling to them and engage in
1. "And it gives grace" - all the more so, Torah
protects those that learn!
(i) When R. Yehoshua Ben Levi was about to die, the angel of
death was told to accede to his desires; he appeared to
1. R. Yehoshua Ben Levi: Show me where my place will
(j) R. Chanina Bar Papa was his close friend. When he was
about to die, the angel of death was told to accede to
his desires; he appeared to him.
2. Angel of death: Fine!
3. R. Yehoshua Ben Levi: Give me your knife, lest you
scare me on the way; he gave it to him.
4. When they got there, the angel of death lifted him
up and showed him; R. Yehoshua Ben Levi jumped to
the other side. He held onto his garment: "I swear,
I will not leave".
5. Hash-m: If he ever annulled an oath, he will go
back; if not, not.
6. Angel of death: Give me my knife; R. Yehoshua Ben
7. Heavenly voice: Give it to him, it is needed for the
world; he gave it back.
8. Eliyahu: Make room for the son of Levi! Make room
for the son of Levi!
9. R. Yehoshua Ben Levi found R. Shimon Bar Yochai
sitting on 13 gold chairs.
10. R. Shimon Bar Yochai: Are you the son of Levi?
11. R. Yehoshua Ben Levi: Yes.
12. R. Shimon Bar Yochai: Was a rainbow seen in your
13. R. Yehoshua Ben Levi: Yes.
14. R. Shimon Bar Yochai: If so, you are not worthy of
i. Really, the rainbow what not seen in his day -
R. Yehoshua Ben Levi did not want to take
credit for this.
1. R. Chanina Bar Papa: Give me 30 days to review my
learning. The angel of death agreed.
(k) R. Chanina: There are no Ba'alei Ra'asan in Bavel,
because they eat beets, and drink beer of Hizmi.
i. Happy is the one who comes to the world to come
and remembers his learning.
2. The angel of death returned after 30 days.
3. R. Chanina Bar Papa: Show me where my place will be.
4. Angel of death: Fine!
5. R. Chanina Bar Papa: Give me your knife, lest you
scare me on the way.
6. Angel of death: You want to do to me as your friend?
7. R. Chanina Bar Papa: Bring a Sefer Torah, and see if
there is anything in it I didn't fulfill.
8. Angel of death: Did you cling to Ba'alei Ra'asan and
engage in Torah?
i. Even though he had not, when he died, a pillar
of fire separated him from everyone else.
9. R. Alexandri came close. '(Let the fire cease,) for
the honor of Chachamim'. The fire continued. 'For
the honor of your father'. The fire continued. 'For
your own honor'. The fire abated.
ii. This only happens for 1 or 2 in a generation.
10. Abaye: The fire was to keep away anyone that did not
fulfill everything in the Torah.
11. Rav Ada Bar Masnah: Such as yourself - you do not
have a railing on your roof!
i. Really, Abaye had a railing - the wind had
blown it down.
(l) R. Yochanan: There are no lepers in Bavel, because they
eat beets, drink beer and bathe in the Pras River.