POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Kidushin 39
KIDUSHIN 36-40 - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
(a) (Rav Asi): One is lashed mid'Oraisa for Kil'ayim in Chutz
(b) Question (R. Elazar bar Asi - Mishnah): Kil'ayim in Chutz
La'aretz is forbidden mid'Rabanan.
(c) Answer: Rav Asi refers to grafting diverse species of
1. (Shmuel): "Guard my statutes" - that I previously
(d) Rav Chanan and Rav Anan saw a man planting Kil'ayim in
2. "Do not crossbreed your animal, do not plant
Kil'ayim in your field" - just as one may not mate
animals 1 on the other, the same applies to your
field (i.e. grafting trees);
i. Just as crossbreeding animals applies in Chutz
La'aretz, also grafting trees.
ii. Question: But "Your field" implies in Eretz
iii. Answer: That teaches that planting Kil'ayim is
only forbidden in Eretz Yisrael.
1. Rav Anan: We should excommunicate him!
(e) They saw a man planting wheat and barley in a vineyard in
2. Rav Chanan: No, he is not transgressing.
1. Rav Anan: We should excommunicate him!
(f) Rav Yosef mixed diverse seeds and planted them together.
2. Rav Chanan: No, he is not transgressing - the law is
as R. Oshiya.
i. (R. Oshiya): To transgress Kil'ayim in a
vineyard, one must plant a grape seed and 2
other species together.
(g) Question (Abaye - Mishnah): Kil'ayim applies in Chutz
(h) Answer (Rav Yosef): That refers to Kil'ayim in a
vineyard, not in a field.
1. Since in Eretz Yisrael, one may not benefit from
Kil'ayim in a vineyard, Chachamim forbade such
Kil'ayim in Chutz La'aretz;
(i) Retraction (Rav Yosef): Even Kil'ayim of a field is
forbidden in Chutz La'aretz - Rav planted his garden in
2. One may benefit from Kil'ayim in a field in Eretz
Yisrael, Chachamim did not forbid such Kil'ayim in
1. Suggestion: This was to avoid Kil'ayim!
2. Rejection (Abaye): Had he planted as the Mishnah
suggests (to maximize the distinct species within an
area without transgressing Kil'ayim), that would be
2) THE REWARD OF MITZVOS
i. Since he didn't plant that way, he merely
planted in patches so it should look nice, or
for ease of harvesting.
(a) (Mishnah): One who does a Mitzvah - Hash-m will bestow
good to him and lengthen his days, and he will inherit
3) REWARD FOR NOT SINNING
1. The opposite applies if he does not do the Mitzvah.
(b) (Gemara) Contradiction (Mishnah): For the following
Mitzvos, a person is rewarded with interest in this
world, and the principle remains for him in the world to
come: honoring parents, bestowing Chesed, hosting guests,
making peace between people, and learning Torah is
equivalent to all of them together.
(c) Answer (Rav Yehudah): Our Mishnah says, one who does 1
Mitzvah beyond his merits (that weighed equally against
his sins), Hash-m will bestow good to him, as someone
that kept the entire Torah.
(d) Inference: By the Mitzvos listed in the other Mishnah, he
gets these rewards for doing 1 Mitzvah alone!
(e) Rejection: (Rav Shemaya): No - the Mitzvos listed can tip
the scales if a person's merits (with that Mitzvah) equal
(f) (Rav Yehudah): Our Mishnah says, one who does 1 Mitzvah
beyond his merits, Hash-m will bestow good to him...
(g) Contradiction (Beraisa): Anyone whose merits outweigh his
sins - Hash-m will do evil to him, he will be appear to
be punished as someone that burned the entire Torah;
1. Anyone whose sins outweigh his merits - Hash-m will
do good to him, he will be appear to be rewarded as
someone that kept the entire Torah.
(h) Answer #1 (Abaye): When the Mishnah says, one who does 1
Mitzvah beyond his merits, Hash-m will bestow good to
him, it means that Hash-m prepares him for the world to
come (by punishing him in this world for his sins);
1. One who does not do the extra Mitzvah, Hash-m will
bestow evil to him - this means, Hash-m withholds
from him reward in the world to come (by rewarding
him in this world for his merits).
(i) Answer #2 (Rava): The Mishnah (that says that Hash-m does
evil to someone who has mostly merits) is as R. Yakov,
who says that reward for a Mitzvah cannot come in this
1. (Beraisa - R. Yakov): Any Mitzvah by which the Torah
mentioned its reward, it makes a person merit to be
revived after death.
(j) (Rav Yosef): Had Acher expounded the verse as R. Yakov,
he would not have become a heretic.
2. By honoring parents it says "In order that you will
lengthen your days and it will be good for you";
3. By sending the mother bird it says "In order that it
will be good for you and your days will be
4. If a man asked his son to bring him chicks from the
top of a building, and the son obeyed, chasing away
the mother away before taking the chicks, he
fulfilled both Mitzvos;
i. Question: If the son falls and dies on the way
down - where is his reward (length of days...)?
5. Question: Perhaps such an incident never happened!
ii. Answer: We must say, the reward promised is in
the world to come.
6. Answer: R. Yakov witnessed such an incident.
7. Question: Perhaps the son was thinking about
idolatry (and therefore he was punished)!
i. "In order to trap Benei Yisrael in their
hearts" (one is punished for thoughts of
idolatry as if he served it).
8. Answer: Even so - if reward for a Mitzvah comes in
this world, the Mitzvah should have guarded the son
from coming to such thoughts.
9. Question: How could such an incident occur?!
i. (R. Elazar): Those engaged in Mitzvos are not
10. Answer: The son was harmed on the way back, after
doing the Mitzvah.
11. Question: but R. Elazar said that those engaged in
Mitzvos are not harmed, not on their way to the
Mitzvah, nor on the way back!
12. Answer: The ladder was rickety - it was clearly
i. We do not rely on miracles in dangerous
situations - "Shmuel said, how can I go (anoint
David) - Sha'ul will hear and kill me!"
(k) Question: Why did he become a heretic?
(l) [Version #1 - Answer: He also saw a son fulfill these 2
Mitzvos and die.]
(m) [Version #2 - Answer: He saw a pig dragging the tongue of
Chutzpis the translator (a great sage and Tzadik killed
by the Romans).]
1. It appeared to him that there is no reward for Torah
and Mitzvos, so he sinned.
(a) Question (Rav Tuvi bar Rav Kisna - Mishnah): Anyone that
does a Mitzvah - Hash-m does good to him.
1. This is only if he does an action!
(b) Contradiction (Beraisa): One who refrains from sinning -
he is rewarded as one that did a Mitzvah.
(c) Answer (Rava): The Beraisa speaks when he was tempted to
sin, and overcame it.
1. A woman asked R. Chanina bar Papa to sin with her.
He said something which caused his body to be
covered with boils; she healed him (through
(d) Rav Kahana was selling women's baskets. A woman asked him
to sin; he said he needed time to adorn himself. He went
to the roof and jumped off; Eliyahu caught him.
2. R. Chanina hid in a bathhouse that was inhabited by
very strong damaging spirits that could harm even 2
people in the daytime; he was not harmed.
3. Chachamim (who did not know why he entered): What
4. R. Chanina: Two people that carry the Kaiser guarded
me all night.
5. Chachamim: Perhaps you were tempted to sin
(sexually) and overcame it?
i. (Beraisa): Anyone tempted to sin (sexually)
that overcomes it, a miracle is done for him.
ii. A woman tempted R. Tzadok to sin.
iii. R. Tzadok: I am too weak - do you have anything
iv. The woman: Only meat of a Tamei animal.
v. R. Tzadok: So I deserve!
vi. As she was heating the oven, R. Tzadok entered
it - he explained, he will later be burned for
sinning. She left him alone.
1. Eliyahu: You made me come a tremendous distance to
2. Rav Kahana: My poverty forced me into this
i. Eliyahu gave him much money so he could quit