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by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Megilah 6

MEGILAH 6-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) R. Yochanan identified 3 cities:
1. Chamas is Teverya; it is called Chamas because of its Chamim (hot springs).
2. Rekes is Tzipori; it is called Rekes because it is above, as Riksa (the bank) of a river is above the river.
3. Kineres is Ginosar; it is called Kineres because its fruit is as sweet as the voice of Kinari (lyres).
(b) Question (Rava): Does anyone really say that Rekes is not Teverya?
1. When someone dies here (in Bavel), they eulogize there (in Teverya): "He was great in Shishak (Bavel),and famous in Rekes"
2. When the coffin is sent for burial in Teverya, they eulogize: "Lovers of Yisrael, dwellers of Rekes, go out and receive those killed in the valley".
3. When R. Zeira died, he was eulogized (in Teverya), "The land of Shinar (Bavel) conceived and gave birth; the land like a deer (Eretz Yisrael) raised her (Bavel's) delight; 'woe to her' says Rekes, for she has lost her precious vessel"!
(c) Rava argues on R. Yochanan on 2 points:
1. Chamas is Chami (the hot springs of) Grar.
2. Rekes is Teverya; it is called Rekes, since the emptiest people in it are full of mitzvas as a Rimon (pomegranate).
(d) R. Yirmiyah argues: The real name of the city is Rekes; it is called Teverya because it sits B'tibura (in the middle) of Eretz Yisrael.
(e) (Rabah): Its name is Rekes; it is called Teverya because "Tova re'iyasah", its view is good.
(f) (Ze'ira): Kitron is Tzipori; it is called Tzipori because it sits at the top of the mountain as a bird.
(g) Question: Is Kitron really Tzipori? Kitron is part of Zevulun!
1. (verse): "Zevulun did not expel the inhabitants of Kitron and Nahalol".
2. (verse): "Zevulun is a blasphemous nation" - they complained to Hashem, "Naftoli is on the high fields" - the other tribes received fields and vineyards, and I received mountains and hills; they received land, I received seas and rivers.
3. Hashem answers: They will all need you for the Chalazon (a fish from which Tcheles, needed for Tzitzis, is obtained).
i. (verse): "The nations call to the mountain, and the treasure hidden in the sand". ii. (Rav Yosef): "Treasure" is Chalazon, "hidden" is Tiryas (a fish, perhaps what we call tuna), "sand" is Zekukis Levana (a precious crystal)
4. (verse): "Zevulun: Hashem, who will tell me (people will steal the Chalazon)!
5. Hashem: "There they will sacrifice righteously" - anyone who steals it will not succeed in his business.
(h) Another question: If Kitron is Tzipori, why was Zevulun complaining, Tzipori is excellent!
1. Suggestion: Perhaps It is not flowing with milk and honey.
2. Rejection: But Reish Lakish saw 16 Mil by 16 Mil flowing with milk and honey in Tzipori!
3. Suggestion: Perhaps the other tribes received more.
4. Rejection (Rabah Bar Bar Chanah): All of Eretz Yisrael contains 22 Parsa by 6 Parsa of 'milk and honey' land (which is less than 10 times as much as Tzipori)!
(i) Answer: In any case, Zevulun preferred fields and vineyards.
1. Support (verse): "Naftoli is on the high fields".
(j) (R. Avahu - verse): "Akron will be uprooted" - this is Kisari of Edom which sits among the sands; this was a dagger to harm Yisrael in the days of the Yevanim.
(k) When the Chashmonaim overpowered the Yevanim, they called it "Achidas Migdal Shir".
(l) (R. Yosi Bar Chanina - verse): "I will take away his bloods from his mouth, and his abominations from between his teeth, and he will also remain to our Lord" - Hashem will remove their idolatries, and the shuls and Bais Medrashes of Edom will remain to Hashem.
(m) "And it will be like a teacher in Yehuda, and Ekron like Yerushalayim" - these are the meeting places, in which leaders of Yehuda will publcily teach Torah.
(n) (R. Yitzchak): "Lesehem" is Pamyas (the source of the Jordan River); "Akron will be uprooted" is Kisari of Edom, which was a city of kings.
1. Some say that it was a place where they raise kings.
2. Others say that it is where kings are appointed.
(a) It cannot happen that both Yerushalayim and Kisari are both desolate, nor that both are settled.
(b) If one is settled, the other is desolate.
1. (Support from the verse): "I will fill the destroyed" - if this is full, the other is destroyed.
2. (Rav Nachman Bar Yitzchak): We learn this from this verse - "one nation will overpower the other nation".
(c) (R. Yitzchak - verse): "The Rasha will be graced, he will not advocate" - Yitzchak asked Hashem to be gracious to Esav.
1. Hashem answers: He is evil!
2. Yitzchak: One cannot speak well of him?
3. Hashem: He will destroy Eretz Yisrael in the future.
4. Yitzchak: If so, he should not see the greatness of Hashem
(d) (R. Yitzchak - verse): "Hashem, do not give the desires of a Rasha (evil one), he should not carry out his plot" - Yaakov asked Hashem, do not let Esav the desire of his heart.

1. Let him not carry out his plot - this is Germamya of Edom - if they would be released, they would destroy the entire world.
2. (R. Chama Bar Chanina): Germamya has 300 crowned princes, and 365 provinces in Edom; every day, they confront one another, and kill one of them, and they are busy appointing a new king.
(e) R. Yitzchak : Do not believe one who says that he toiled in Torah and did not find, nor one who says that he found without toiling.
1. If he says that he toiled and found, believe him.
2. In business, all is possible, through help from Heaven.
3. Even in Torah, this was only said to learn sharply; remembering the teachings depends on help from Heaven.
(f) (R. Yitzchak): If you see a Rasha on whom the hour is smiling, do not confront him (from the verse "Do not compete with evildoers).
1. Further, "his ways succeed at all times".
2. Further, he will win in his case - "Your judgments are removed from him".
3. Further, he sees (the downfall of) his enemies - "All his tormentors, he will blow on them".
(g) Question: This cannot be!
1. (R. Yochanan - verse) "Those that abandon the Torah praise a Rasha; those that guard the Torah will confront him" - we may confront Reshaim in this world!
(h) Strengthening the question (Beraisa - R. Dostoy): we may confront Reshaim in this world.
1. The verse "Do not compete with evildoers, do not be jealous of those that do unjustly" - one who fears because he has sinned, says that the verse says not to confront them.
2. Really, the verse says not to go in their ways.
3. (Support - verse): "Don't let your heart envy sinners".
(i) Answer: One should confront a Rasha in spiritual matters, not in his personal affairs.
(j) Answer#2: Only a total Tzadik may confront a Rasha in his personal matters.
1. Support (Rav Huna - verse): "Why do you look at traitors, you are silent when a Rasha swallows one more righteous than himself" - a Rasha may swallow one more righteous than himself, but not a total Tzadik.
(k) Answer#3: Normally, one may confront a Rasha; when the hour is smiling on him is an exception.
(l) (Ula): Italia of Yavan is a great city of Rome; it is 300 Parsa by 300 Parsa.
1. It has 365 markets, as the number of days in the year; the smallest is of fowl vendors, which is 16 Mil by 16 Mil.
2. Each day, the king eats in a market; whoever lives in it (even if not born there), or was born there (even if he does not live there) receives food from the kings house.
3. It hass 3000 bathhouses, and 500 windows spew smoke outside the wall.
4. One side is the sea, one side is hills and mountains, one side is an iron barrier, and one side is fine rocks.
(a) Mishnah: If the Megilah was read in the 1st Adar, and the year was declared a leap year, we read it again in the 2nd Adar;
(b) The only differences between the 2 Adars are the reading of the Megilah and gifts to the poor.
(c) Gemara: We infer, both Adars are the same regarding the 4 special (Maftir) portions.
(d) Question: The Mishnah is not like any of the 3 tannaim of the coming Beraisa!
(e) (Beraisa): If the Megilah was read in the 1st Adar, and the year was declared a leap year, we read it again in the 2nd Adar; All mitvas which appply in the second Adar apply in the 1st, except for the reading of the Megilah;
1. R. Eliezer Bar R. Yosi says, we do not read it in the 2nd Adar, because all mitzvas which apply in the second apply in the 1st;
2. R. Shimon Ben Gamliel says, we even read in the 2nd Adar, since all mitzvas which apply in the 2nd don't apply in the 1st.
3. Eulogies and fasting are forbidden on the 14th and 15th of both months.
4. Question: What is the difference between the first tanna and R. Shimon Ben Gamliel?
5. Answer (Rav Papa): They argue regarding the 4 Parshas; the first tanna says that if they were read in the 1st Adar, one need not repeat them.
i. R. Shimon Ben Gamliel says that the Parshas must be repeated.
(f) Elucidation of question (d): The Mishnah is unlike the 1st tanna, who says that even gifts to the poor do not apply in Adar 1.
1. It is not like R. Eliezer Bar R. Yosi, who says that the Megilah may be read in Adar
2. It is not like R. Shimon Ben Gamliel, who says that even the Parshas must be repeated.
(g) Answer: Really, the Mishnah is like the 1st tanna; when he said "except for reading the Megilah, gifts to the poor were included, since these depend on the reading.
(h) Answer#2: The Mishnah is like R. Shimon Ben Gamliel; it really says as follows.
1. The only difference between the 14th of the 2 Adars is the Megilah reading and gifts; they are the same regarding eulogies and fasting; the Mishnah does not deal with the Parshas.
(i) (R. Chiya Bar Avin): The halacha is like R. Shimon Ben Gamliel.
(j) (R. Yochanan): R. Eliezer and R. Shimon both learned from the same verse, "In every year and year".
1. R. Eliezer says that every year, we celebrate in the month next to Shevat.
2. R. Shimon says that every year we celebrate in the month adjacent to Nisan.
3. We understand the reason of R. Eliezer - we do not pass over mitzvas.
4. Question: What is the reason for R. Shimon?
5. Answer (R. Tavi): It is better to put redemptions close to each other.
6. Answer#2 (R. Elazar): He learns from the verse, "To fulfill this 2nd letter of Purim".
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