POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Megilah 12
MEGILAH 11-13 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) MISCALCULATION OF THE 70 YEARS
(a) (Support - Beraisa): There was another year to Bavel;
Daryavesh completed it.
2) ACHASHVEROSH'S PARTY
(b) (Rava): Even Daniel made this miscalculation, as it says,
"In the 1st year of his reign, I, Daniel, contemplated in
Seforim"; the language "contemplated" implies that he had
(c) Question: One verse said "to fulfill to Bavel; another
said "from the destruction of Yerushalayim"!
(d) Answer (Rava): The 1st Pasuk predicted only a sanction
(to build the Temple; it was later rescinded. The
completion of the Temple was 70 years from the
1. We see this from the verse "So says Koresh, king of
Persia, all the kingdoms of the world gave to me,
Hashem, Lord of Heaven, and he appointed me to build
for him a house in Yerushalayim."
(e) (Rav Nachman Bar Rav Chisda): It says, "So said Hashem to
his Mashiach, to Koresh, that I have strengthened his
1. Koresh was not Mashiach! Rather, Hashem was
complaining about Koresh to Mashiach - I said he
should build my house and gather my exiles, and he
said, "who will go up among you, will go".
(a) "The legion of Persia and Madai the officers"; and it
says, "to the kings of Persia and Madai"!
1. (Rava): They agreed among themselves: If there will
be kings among us, there will be officers among you,
and vice versa.
(b) "In showing the wealth, the honor of his kingdom" - (R.
Yosi Bar Chanina) this teaches that he wore the garments
of the Kohanim!
1. Here it says "The honor, the glory of his
greatness"; it says by the Kohanim's garments, "for
honor and glory".
(c) "When these days finished": Rav and Shmuel argued.
1. One says that he was a clever king - he first drew
close those from far away - he can always appease
those close by.
(d) Question (Students of R. Shimon Bar Yochai): Why were the
haters of Yisrael (euphemism) of that generation worthy
to be destroyed?
2. The other says that he was foolish - he should have
first drawn close those of his region, so if the
others rebel, these will support him.
(e) (R. Shimon Bar Yochai): Answer yourselves!
(f) Answer (Students): Because they benefited from the meal
of that evil one (Achashverosh).
(g) Question (R. Shimon Bar Yochai): If so, only the Jews in
Shushan should be killed, not in the whole world!
(h) (Students): How do you answer?
(i) Answer (R. Shimon Bar Yochai): Because they bowed to the
image (Nebuchadnetzar's idol).
(j) Question (Students): Did Hashem show partiality (why did
he miraculously save them)?
(k) Answer (R. Shimon Bar Yochai): They only appeared to
serve it; Hashem, also only appeared to decree their
destruction, as it says, "He did not afflict from his
(l) "In the courtyard, the garden of the house of the king".
Rav and Shmuel argued: One said that whom was fit for the
courtyard, was in the courtyard; those fit for the
garden, in the garden; those fit for the house, in the
1. The other explains: He put everyone in the
courtyard, but they did not fit; he put them all in
the garden, but they did not fit, until he entered
them into the house; the house contained them.
(m) "Chur, Karpas and Techeiles" - (Rav): "Chur" is *Chari
Chari* (needlepoint, full of holes).
2. (Beraisa): He sat them in the courtyard and made 2
openings: one to the garden, and one to the house.
1. (Shmuel): He spread white (*Chiver*) silk for them.
(n) "On wheels of silver and marble pillars; beds of gold and
silver" - (Beraisa): R. Yehuda says, one fitting for
silver (sat on a bed of) silver; one fitting for gold,
2. (R. Yosi Bar Chanina): "Karpas" is Karim of Pasim
1. Question (R. Nechemyah): That would cause jealousy
at the meal! Rather, the beds were of silver, the
legs were of gold.
(o) "Bahat and marble" - (R. Asi): Stones that Mis*hot*etin
(are an exertion to obtain) on their owners, as it says,
"Crown jewels *Misnosesos* (cause difficulties) on his
(p) "Dar v'Sochares" (Rav): Dari Dari (around in rows -
1. (Shmuel): There is a precious stone in the port
cities, called Darah; he set it in the middle of the
meal, and it illuminated for them as noon
(q) "And the drinking was in golden vessels, and vessels from
vessels *Shonim* (different)".
2. (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): He called freedom (from
taxes) for all merchants.
1. Question: Grammatically, the word should be
(r) "And royal wine *Rav* (much)" (Rav): This teaches that
each person was given wine *Rav* (older) than himself.
2. Answer (Rava): A voice from Heaven said, the first
ones were destroyed because of vessels, and you are
*Shonim* (repeating) with them!
(s) "The drinking was k'Das (as the law)" - what is
1. (Rav Chanan): Like the Torah, the eating exceeds the
drinking (as we see by the flour offerings which
accompany an animal, which exceed the wine
offerings), so too at the evil one's party.
(t) "Without compulsion" (R. Elazar): Each person was given
wine of his country (which does not inebriate him
(u) "To do as the will of each man and man" (Rava) - as the
will of Mordechai and Haman.
1. We see that Mordechai is called *Ish* (a man) - "A
(v) "Also Vashti the queen made a women's party in the
2. Haman is called "A man, oppressor and enemy".
1. Question: She should have made it in the women's
2. Answer (Rava): Both of them (she and Achashverosh)
intended for sin, as people say, "He in big gourds,
and his wife in small gourds".
3) THE KILLING OF VASHTI
(a) "On the 7th day, when the king's heart was merry with
1. Question: Until now, it wasn't merry with wine?
(b) Question: "Vashti refused" - but she was licentious, as
it was taught, both intended for sin - why didn't she
2. Answer (Rava): The 7th day was Shabbos, that Yisrael
eat and drink and begin with words of Torah and
praises, but idolaters that eat and drink only begin
3. So at the evil one's party, these say that Persian
women are beautiful, these say that Median women are
4. Achashverosh: My vessel is neither, rather
Babylonian - would you like to see her?
5. They answered: Yes - but she must be naked.
i. As a person treats others, Heaven treats him:
we learn from here, Vashti the evil used to
strip Jewish women of their clothing and make
them work on Shabbos.
ii. This explains the verse, "After these matters,
when King Achashverosh's anger abated, he
remembered what she did and what was decreed
upon her" - as she did, so was decreed upon
1. Answer: (R. Yosi Bar Chanina): This teaches that she
(c) Question: "And the king was very angry" - why was he so
2. (Beraisa): Gavri'el came and made a tail on her.
(d) Answer (Rava): She sent to him, "Stable boy of my father,
my father would drink 1000 wines, and not get drunk; this
one (you) get drunk with wine!"
1. Immediately, "his anger raged within him".
(e) "The king said to the Chachamim" these are Rabbanan.
(f) "That know the times" - that know how to make leap years
and to fix the months.
(g) Achashverosh: Judge her for me!
1. The Rabbanan reasoned: If we tell him to kill her -
tomorrow he will sober up, and punish us for
(h) They replied: Since the Temple was destroyed and we were
exiled from our land, counsel was taken from us and we do
not know how to judge capital cases; go to Amon and Moav,
who sit on their land like wine sitting on its dregs.
2. We should tell him to pardon her - she is disgracing
1. They answered him well, as it says, "Moav has been
tranquil from his youth, sitting on his dregs, he
was not poured from vessel to vessel, and did not go
into exile, therefore he still has his reason/taste,
and his scent has not gone."
(i) Immediately, "And the closest to him, Karshena, Shesar,
1. (R. Levi): This entire verse refers to sacrifices.
(j) "And Memuchan said" (Beraisa): Memuchan is Haman - he is
called Memuchan, because he is Muchan (prepared) for
i. "Karshena" - the angels asked Hashem, did they
offer in front of you *Karim* Bnei *Shana*
(yearling lambs), as Yisrael?
ii. "Shesar": Did they offer to you *Shtai Torim*
iii. "Admasa": Did they build for you an altar of
iv. "Tarshish": Did they serve in front of you with
priestly garments, of which it says "Tarshish"
(beryl), onyx and jasper?
v. "Meres": Did they mix blood (to prevent it from
hardening) in front of you?
vi. "Marsena": Did they knead flour offerings in
front of you?
vii. "Memuchan": Did they prepare a table in front
1. (Rav Kahana): From here we see that the commoner
jumps to the top.
(k) "That each man should rule in his house" (Rava) if not
for the first letters, there would not have remained any
remnant of the haters of (euphemism) Yisrael!
1. People said, what is he sending us - this is
obvious, even a weaver is the officer in his house!
(l) "And the king appointed overseers" (Rav): What is the
meaning of "Every sharp one will act wisely, and a fool
will spreads foolishness"?
1. "Every sharp one acts wisely" is Dovid, of whom it
says "His servants said to him, let them seek for my
master, the king, a virgin girl"; whoever had a
daughter, brought her.
(m) Question: "There was a Jewish man in Shushan the capital
... of Binyamin" - if the verse is coming to give his
lineage, it should give all his fathers until Binyamin!
Why does it only list these?
2. "A fool spreads foolishness" is Achashverosh, as it
says, "The king appointed overseers" - whoever had a
daughter, hid her.
(n) Answer (Beraisa): All those listed are called on
1. "Ben Ya'ir" - A son "she'He'ir" (illuminated) the
eyes of Yisrael with his prayer.
(o) Question: He is called "Yehudi" - we see, he comes from
Yehuda - and he is called "Yemini", to say, he comes
2. "Ben Shimi" - A son whose prayer was heard from
3. "Ben Kish" - that he knocked on the gates of mercy,
and they opened for him.
(p) Answer#1 (Rav Nachman): Mordechai was crowned with nice
(q) Answer#2 (Rabah Bar Rav Huna): His father was from
Binyamin, his mother was from Yehuda.
(r) Answer#3 (Rabanan): The tribes competed over him: Yehuda
claimed responsibility for his birth, by not killing
Shimi Ben Gera.
1. Benyamin takes credit, since he was born from me!
(s) (Rava): The congregation of Yisrael says oppositely: see
what Yehuda did to me, how Binyamin paid me!