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Previous daf MENACHOS 45
1) [line 2] D'ATZERES D'TORAS KOHANIM - [the Olah sacrifices of two rams] of Shavu'os, mentioned in Sefer Vayikra (23:18) (see Chart)
2) [line 2] HAVAYAH KESIV B'HU - the word "Yiheyu," "they shall be," in the verse, "v'Hikravtem Al ha'Lechem Shiv'as Kevasim Temimim Benei Shanah u'Far ben Bakar Echadv'Eilim Shenayim, Yiheyu Olah la'Sh-m u'Minchasam v'Niskeihem Isheh Rei'ach Nicho'ach la'Sh-m." - "And you shall offer seven unblemished sheep within their first year, and one young bull and two rams, they shall be a burnt offering to HaSh-m, and their flour offerings and their wine libations, a pleasing fire-offering to HaSh-m." (Vayikra 23:18)
3) [line 4] AYIL D'CHUMASH HA'PEKUDIM - the [Olah sacrifice of one] ram [of Shavu'os,] mentioned in Sefer Bamidbar (28:27) (see Chart)
4) [line 6] PARIM D'AFILU A'HADADEI LO ME'AKVEI - [the Olah sacrifices of sheep and] bulls, [respectively, mentioned in Bamidbar and the Olah sacrifices of sheep mentioned in Vayikra,] even when mentioned in the same verse, do not prevent each other from being offered (e.g. if only one bull is available out of the two bulls of the Musaf sacrifice, it may be offerred, even though they are mentioned in the same verse)
5) [line 8] INHU ME'AKVEI?! - those (the rams of Vayikra and the ram of Bamidbar) should prevent each other from being offered?! (they are not even in the same verse)
6) [line 8] TANA, MILEI MILEI KETANI - the Tana recorded separate Halachos one after the other, even though one could be learned from the other
7) [line 9] "UV'YOM HA'CHODESH PAR BEN BAKAR (TAMIM) [TEMIMIM], (V'SHISHAH) [V'SHESHES] KEVASIM VA'AYIL TEMIMIM YIHEYU." - "And on the day of the [new] month [you shall offer] a young bull, unblemished, and six sheep and a ram, they shall be unblemished." (Yechezkel 46:6)
8) [line 18] "VELA'KEVASIM KA'ASHER TASIG YADO" - "and for the sheep, as much as he can afford" (Yechezkel 46:7) - The Gemara takes this verse out of context, since it is actually referring to Menachos (see below, entry #24). At this point the Gemara proves from these words that whatever the Kohanim are able to afford for the Korban of Rosh Chodesh, even one sheep, they are permitted to offer.
9) [line 19] KAMAH D'EFSHAR L'HADUREI MEHADRINAN - that the more animals that they are able to procure, they should make the effort to obtain
10) [line 21] "KOH AMAR HASH-M ELOKIM, BA'RISHON B'ECHAD LA'CHODESH TIKACH PAR BEN BAKAR TAMIM, V'CHITESA ES HA'MIKDASH." - "Thus say HaSh-m, your G-d, in the first [month] on the first [day] of the month, you shall take a young unblemished bull, and you shall purify the Beis ha'Mikdash." (Yechezkel 45:18) - The Gemara points out that the verse refers to a Korban Olah using terms that are normally reserved for the Korban Chatas. (The DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #100 brings an alternate Girsa from the manuscripts, "... TAMIM V'LAKACH HA'KOHEN MI'DAM HA'CHATAS," in which the Gemara skips the end of verse 18 and quotes the beginning of verse 19. The question of the Gemara (see next entry) is more understandable according to this Girsa.)
11) [line 23] CHATAS?! OLAH HI! - Chatas?! This Korban (a Par of Rosh Chodesh) is meant to be an Olah!
12) [line 24] ELIYAHU ASID L'DORSHAH - Eliyahu ha'Navi will explain this in the future
13) [line 25] MILU'IM HIKRIVU BI'YEMEI EZRA - they brought Korbenos Milu'im (inaugural sacrifices) at the time of Ezra, at the inauguration of the Second Beis ha'Mikdash (The intention of Rav Ashi is that had they been worthy, they might have brought the sacrifices mentioned in these verses. These verses from Sefer Yechezkel describe the construction of the everlasting Beis ha'Mikdash, which will be built speedily and in our days. At the time, special inaugural sacrifices will be offered that are different from the Korbanos mentioned in the Torah -- SHITAH MEKUBETZES #4) (see MALBIM at beginning of Chagai)
14) [line 29] TANU'ACH DA'ATCHA SHE'HINACHTA DA'ATI - may your mind be at ease, at rest, since you put my mind at ease
15) [line 35] ISHTERI MELIKAH L'GABAIHU - it was permitted for them to eat the meat of a bird upon which Melikah was performed (MELIKAH)
(a) Shechitah (ritual slaughter -- see Background to Bava Kama 99:40) was not performed on birds that were brought as Korbanos. Instead, the Kohen performed Melikah by cutting the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus) of the Olas ha'Of or one Siman (either one) of the Chatas ha'Of. When performing Melikah on the Chatas ha'Of he would make sure not to sever both Simanim of the bird ("v'Lo Yavdil" - Vayikra 5:8).
(b) Although Melikah takes the place of Shechitah for a bird, it is considered a singular Heter for the Kohanim, only in the Beis ha'Mikdash. If anyone outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash were to eat the meat of a bird upon which Melikah were performed, he would be liable for eating Neveilah.
16) [line 36] "V'CHEN TA'ASEH B'SHIV'AH VA'CHODESH ME'ISH SHOGEH UMI'PESI, V'CHIPARTEM ES HA'BAYIS." - "And so shall you do on the seventh of the month for the person who is unintentional [in his sin] and for the fool, and you shall atone for the House." (Yechezkel 45:20) - The Gemara explains this verse presently (see TOSFOS DH Milu'im)
17) [line 39] AF AL PI SHE'EIN RUBAH SHEL KAHAL - even if they are not the majority of the entire populace (PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR)
(a) The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) is obligated to bring a Korban in the following instance. If they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that carries a Chiyuv Kares, instructed the Jewish people to act according to their ruling and the people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based upon this ruling. The sages bring twelve young bulls as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied upon the Beis Din ha'Gadol. If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring young bulls as Korbenos Olah and goats as Korbenos Chatas, one of each for each tribe. Each of these bulls is called a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b) The blood of these bulls (and the goats) is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c) The remains of the bulls (and the goats) (including the meat and parts that are not sacrificed) are burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)
18) [line 40] IM CHIDSHU V'AMRU CHELEV MUTAR - if they innovated [a new ruling] and said that Chelev (forbidden fats -- see Background to Horayos 2:8a) is permitted
19) [line 42] HE'ELEM DAVAR IM SHIGEGAS MA'ASEH - see above, entry #17
20) [line 44] ILMALEI HU - were it not for him
21) [line 44] NIGNAZ - would have been hidden away, put into a Genizah, a storage room (usually in a synagogue) for disused books
22) [line 46] GARVEI SHEMEN - bottles of oil
23) [line 46] ALIYAH - the second story of his house
24) [line 48] "V'EIFAH LA'PAR V'EIFAH LA'AYIL YA'ASEH MINCHAH, VELA'KEVASIM KA'ASHER TASIG YADO, V'SHEMEN HIN LA'EIFAH." - "And a measure [of flour] for the bull and a measure [of flour] for the ram he shall offer as a Minchah sacrifice; and for the sheep, as much [flour] as he can afford, and oil, one Hin [from which the required oil for each respective animal is taken -- see Bamidbar 15:1-9; this explanation may likewise apply to the flour -- TOSFOS DH v'Chi] per measure." (Yechezkel 46:7)
25) [line 4] HA'LECHEM (SHTEI HA'LECHEM)
The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17) consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56 or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the loaves project upward to a height of four Tefachim (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10). In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (ibid. 23:18-19). Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin 82:60) of the Shtei ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.
26) [line 5] HE'KEVASIM - the sheep of Shavu'os (KIVSEI ATZERES)
The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17, see previous entry) that consists of two loaves of bread that are Chametz, made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour. In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim are offered (ibid. 23:18-19). These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.
27) [line 6] LO CHI, ELA - not like that, rather
28) [line 12] HA'AMUR B'CHUMASH HA'PEKUDIM - [the Musaf sacrifices] mentioned in Sefer Bamidbar (28:1-29:39), specifically the Musaf sacrifices of Shavu'os (Bamidbar 28:26-31)
29) [line 13] HA'AMUR B'SORAS KOHANIM - [the sacrifices associated with the Shtei ha'Lechem] mentioned in Sefer Vayikra (23:18-19)
30) [line 16] MATIRIN ES ATZMAN - they permit themselves to be eaten (i.e. the sacrifice of the Eimurim permits the meat to be eaten by the Kohanim)
31) [line 17] EIN LO MI YATIRENU - there is nothing to permit them to be eaten (the only "Matir" of the Shtei ha'Lechem is the sacrifice of the Kivsei Atzeres)
32) [line 18] CHOVAH AL HA'LECHEM - a requirement for the Shtei ha'Lechem
33) [line 22] YACHOL HEN HEN KEVASIM HA'AMURIM KAN - could it be that these sheep that are mentioned here [in the Korban Olah] (Vayikra 23:18)
34) [line 24] EINAN HEN - (lit. they are not they) they are not similar [in number, and therefore the sheep are not the same seven sheep, either)
35) [line 28] LAV INHU - (lit. [these] are not they) the bulls and the rams are indeed different
36) [line 29] INHU NINHU? - (lit. they are they) perhaps the sheep are the same seven sheep?
37) [line 29] MID'HANEI ISHTENU - since these (the bulls and rams) have changed
38) [line 29] HANEI NAMI D'ACHARINEI - these, too, are others (a different set of seven sheep)
39) [line 33] MID'IHSTENI SIDRAN - since their order has changed (sheep, bull, rams in Vayikra and bulls, ram, sheep in Bamidbar)
40) [line 34] GAMAR YIHEYU MI'TIHEYENAH - he learns "Yiheyu" in the verse "v'Henif ha'Kohen Osam al Lechem ha'Bikurim Tenufah Lifnei HaSh-m Al Shenei Kevasim, Kodesh Yiheyu la'Sh-m la'Kohen." - "And the Kohen shall wave them with the bread of the first fruits for a wave offering before HaSh-m with the two lambs; they shall be holy to HaSh-m for the Kohen." (Vayikra 23:20) from "Tiheyenah" in the verse "mi'Moshevoseichem Tavi'u Lechem Tenufah Shtayim Shenei Esronim Soles Tiheyenah Chametz Te'afenah, Bikurim la'Sh-m." - "From your settlements you shall bring bread for waving, two [made from] two Esronim, of fine flour they shall be, baked as Chametz, an initiation offering to HaSh-m."
41) [line 40] "V'SHAV HA'KOHEN U'VA HA'KOHEN" - "and the Kohen returned" (Vayikra 14:39) "and the Kohen came" (Vayikra 14:44)
42) [line 40] ZEHU SHIVAH ZEHU VI'AH - retuning and coming are the same (NIG'EI BATIM - Tzara'as that infects houses)
(a) The marks of Tzara'as for houses consist of intense green or intense red streaks or spots that are at least the size of two Gerisin (a Gris is a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 12:3). If Tzara'as is found on the walls of a house, it is put into quarantine by a Kohen for a week. Before the Kohen puts the house into quarantine, he commands that the house be emptied of its contents to prevent its utensils from becoming Tamei.
(b) The Torah states (Vayikra 14:39) "v'*Shav* ha'Kohen," to prescribe that the Kohen return six days later to check the house. If the Tzara'as has spread, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week. If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.
(c) On the other hand, if the Tzara'as did not change after the first week, the Kohen leaves it as is and returns again six days later. The verse states (Vayikra 14:44) "u'*Va* Ha'kohen," which means "if, when the Kohen comes back to the house to inspect it a second time, he finds that the spot of Tzara'as has spread, the house is Tamei." Chazal teach that this verse is referring to a spot of Tzara'as that does not spread during its first week. The Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to see whether the spot has spread, remains, or has disappeared. If the Tzara'as has either spread or remained, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week (Vayikra 14:40). If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.
(d) Even though the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va" are not identical, they are referring to the same action; namely, the Kohen entering the house to inspect it. This relates the two verses to each other with a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Zevachim 103:30). Just as the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week -- unless the stones are scraped and the Tzara'as returned to the house after a week of quarantine -- so, too, the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spread during the second week unless it returns to the house after the quarantine period that follows the scraping.
(e) If during one of the inspections at the end of the first or second week the Kohen finds that the Tzara'as has disappeared or diminished in intensity such that it can no longer be classified as a Nega, the location of the spot alone is scraped and the house is declared Tahor after the owner follows the procedure for being Metaher houses (see Background to Sukah 13:11:IV). (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Tzara'as 15:2)
43) [line 41] HEICHA L'LEIKA D'DAMI LEI - where there are no words that are exactly like the word in question
44) [line 44] SHE'MATANAH L'CHOHEN - that are the portion (lit. a gift) of the Kohen
45) [line 45] BI'KERA GUFEI - in the verse itself
46) [line 46] "KODESH YIHEYU LA'SH-M LA'KOHEN" - "they shall be holy to HaSh-m for the Kohen." (Vayikra 23:20)
47) [last line] KENA'O HA'SH-M V'NASNO LA'KOHEN - HaSh-m acquired it (kev'Yachol) and gave it to the Kohen