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1) [line 1] IM HUZKEKU ZEH LA'ZEH - if they become "bound" to each other
15) [line 19] LIKADSHU HANEI V'HANEI - let these (the Shenei Kevasim) and those (the bull, two rams and seven sheep) consecrate the Shtei ha'Lechem
16) [line 21] SHELAMIM HU D'MEKADSHEI - it is the Shelamim (the Shlamei Nazir) that consecrates [the Rekikei Nazir loaves]
17) [line 21] MIDI ACHARINA LO - (lit. anything else does not) none of the other Korbanos of the Nazir consecrate the Rekikei Nazir loaves
18) [line 25] TE'UBAR TZURASAN - we let their appearance become disfigured (by beginning to decay), i.e. we wait for the night to pass so that they will become invalidated as "Nosar" (NOSAR)
(a) If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it must be burned, as the Torah states, "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref." - "It shall be eaten the same day that you slaughter it and on the next day, and anything that remains until the third day shall be burned in fire" (Vayikra 19:6; see Background to Shevuos 3:11). The same Halachah applies to the Shtei ha'Lechem, that if they are left until the morning after Shavu'os, they become invalidated and must be burned.
(b) If a person eats a k'Zayis of Nosar b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Nosar is learned from the verse of the Milu'im, "v'Im Yivaser mi'Besar ha'Milu'im u'Min ha'Lechem Ad ha'Boker, v'Sarafta Es ha'Nosar ba'Esh, Lo Ye'achel Ki Kodesh Hu." - "And if any flesh or bread of the Milu'im sacrifices is left over until the (following) morning, you shall burn the remnants in fire, it shall not be eaten since it is holy" (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #215).
19) [line 25] V'YETZ'U L'VEIS HA'SEREIFAH - and they shall be burned in the Beis ha'Sereifah
20) [line 26] MAH NAFSHACH? - (lit. what is it your desire [to say]?) Which position would you like to adopt?
21) [line 26] IY L'ACHILAH ASYAN - if they are permitted to be eaten [without the Matir of the Kivsei Atzeres]
22) [line 26] LEICHLINHU - let the Kohanim eat them
23) [line 26] LISREFINHU L'ALTAR - let them burn them at once (that is, after nightfall of the day of Shavu'os, since it is prohibited to burn Kodshim Pesulim on Yom Tov -- SHITAH MEKUBETZES citing TOSFOS ACHEIROS)
24) [line 27] YIZDAMNU LAHEM KEVASIM - sheep will become available to them
25) [line 28] ESHTAKAD - last year
26) [line 29] INHU SHARYAN NAFSHAIHU - they permitted themselves to be eaten (i.e. the Tenufah of the Shtei ha'Lechem that were brought when there were no Kivsei Atzeres permitted them to be eaten by the Kohanim)
27) [line 31] HE'ID BEN BUCHRI B'YAVNEH - the sage named Ben Buchri testified in Yavneh (Yavnah was the seat of the Sanhedrin after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai was granted three requests by Vespesian (Gitin 56b), one of them being "Give me Yavneh and its scholars")
28a) [line 31] KOHEN SHE'SHOKEL EINO CHOTEI - a Kohen who contributes the half-Shekel towards the Korbanos of the Beis ha'Mikdash does not transgress any prohibition (SHEKALIM)
(a) Every year, one half Shekel was collected from every Jew to fund the Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din placed the money that was collected in a room in the Mikdash reserved for that purpose (see Background to Bava Metzia 57:16).
(b) The half Shekalim were collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan so that the Korbanos of the new year (which starts with the month of Nisan) would be offered from the money that was collected for the new year. On the first of Adar, Beis Din announced that the Shekalim should be collected, in order to ensure that all of the Shekalim would be collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Some commentaries contend that a portion of the Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan, while others claim that all of the Shekalim arrived by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, since the Shekalim were collected from the regions further from Yerushalayim earlier in the year. (This latter opinion appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 2a - see Mishnas Eliyahu ibid. 2b.)
(c) The amount that was collected from each Jew was not fixed at half a Shekel. Rather, the amount given was always half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (the primary coin in use at the time), provided that it was not less than the value of half a Shekel.
(d) The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinarim. People became accustomed to calling the coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13).
(e) At three times during the year (before each of the three festivals), Beis Din filled three boxes, each of which held three Se'in (approximately 21.6, 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) with Shekalim from that room. The portion that was set aside in the boxes was called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while the remainder of the Shekalim were called "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (See Insights to Shekalim 9:2)
(f) There is a difference of opinion as to why the Terumas ha'Lishkah was done three times a year rather than just once. One opinion states that the reason was only to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah (Shekalim 2b, see Insights there). According to others, Beis Din was concerned that the Terumas ha'Lishkah should also be collected from the Shekalim that arrived later in the year (this opinion is also mentioned in the Yerushalmi, ibid.).
(g) The Shekalim from the Terumas ha'Lishkah were used to purchase the animals needed for public sacrifices and for the wages of certain laborers and appointees of Hekdesh (as described in our Gemara). The Shekalim from the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah were used to buy other goods necessary for the upkeep of the Mikdash and the entire city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).
b) [line 32] KOL KOHEN SHE'EINO SHOKEL CHOTEI - any Kohen who does not contribute the half-Shekel towards the Korbanos of the Beis ha'Mikdash transgresses a prohibition
29) [line 34] HEI'ACH NE'ECHALIN? - Why are they eaten (when all Menachos of the Kohanim are burned, as it states in the verse, Vayikra 6:16)?
30) [line 38] LACHMEI TODAH LO IKRU MINCHAH - the Lachmei Todah are not called "Minchah" [in the verses, and furthermore, they are eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim, as opposed to most Menachos, which are only eaten within the walls of the Azarah]
31) [line 40] EIN SORFIN KODASHIM B'YOM TOV
(a) Kodshim and Terumah that become Teme'im must be burned, as the Torah states, "ba'Esh Yisaref" (Vayikra 7:19). However, it is prohibited to burn them on Yom Tov. The Gemara (Shabbos 24b) brings four ways to learn this from the verses.
(b) Burning for the sake of preparing food (l'Tzorech Ochel Nefesh) is permitted on Yom Tov, as long as an existing fire is used. The Gemara (Beitzah 12b) teaches that since it is permitted l'Tzorech, burning in general (she'Lo l'Tzorech) is also permitted. However, there must be at least some benefit (Tzorech ha'Yom Ketzas) that is derived from it on that day of Yom Tov.
(c) Since burning Kodshim Teme'im is a Mitzvah, if a person burns them on Yom Tov, the benefit that he derives is considered subordinate to the Mitzvah he performs. There was no Tzorech ha'Yom at all. Therefore burning Kodshim is prohibited mid'Oraisa (TOSFOS to Shabbos 24b DH Lefi)
32) [line 44] (TZURAS) [KOL ZEMAN] HAKRAVASAM - they are left over until the time for the offering of the Kivsei Atzeres has passed, i.e. until the offering of the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim (the afternoon Tamid sacrifice, the last Korban of the day)