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Previous daf Menachos 74
1) [line 12] "U'VA B'CHOL AVAS NAFSHO... V'SHERES" - "And he may come
whenever he desires... and serve...." (Devarim 18:6-7)
2) [line 15] "V'CHIPER HA'KOHEN AL HA'NEFESH HA'SHOGEGES B'CHET'AH
BI'SHEGAGAH" - "And the Kohen shall atone for the unintentionally-sinning
soul when he sins unintentionally" (Bamidbar 15:28)
3) [line 19] ZEDON SHEVU'AH (SHEVU'AS HA'EDUS)
(a) One of the litigants in a court case has the right to force a person to
take an oath when he feels that the person is concealing testimony about the
case. The oath that the alleged witness takes to claim that he is not
harboring any testimony is called a Shevu'as ha'Edus (Vayikra 5:1).
(b) For example, a person asks two witnesses to testify on his behalf, in
order to oblige the opposing litigant to pay him. The witnesses deny all
knowledge of the case and even swear in court to that effect. If they admit
afterwards that they did know testimony, they must bring a Korban Oleh
v'Yored. If they are wealthy they each bring a female sheep or female goat
as a Korban Chatas. If they cannot afford the animal, they each bring two
turtledoves or two common doves, one as a Chatas and one as an Olah. If they
cannot even afford birds, they each bring an offering of 1/10 of an Eifah of
flour as a Minchas Chatas (ibid. 5:5-13).
(c) Shevu'as ha'Edus applies only if they denied in court the fact that they
know testimony. The witnesses are obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored
even if they intentionally make a false Shevu'ah. They are also obligated if
they are Shogeg with regard to the Shevu'ah (that is, they do not know that
this Shevu'ah will obligate them to bring a Korban -- see Shevuos 31b), if
they intentionally make a false Shevu'ah while they actually know testimony.
However, they are not obligated to bring a Korban if they are Shogeg with
regard to the testimony (that is, they forgot at the time of the Shevu'ah
that they know testimony -- Shevu'os 30a).
4) [line 23] MISPAZRIN - it is spread, sprinkled
5) [line 23] BEIS HA'DESHEN
(a) There are four places associated with the Beis ha'Mikdash that are
called "Beis ha'Deshen" (ash-pile):
1. The first Beis ha'Deshen, also known as Mekom ha'Deshen, was located
southeast of the outer Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three
Tefachim (approximately 22.8, 24 or 28.8 cm, depending upon the differing
Halachic opinions) from the ramp and 10 Amos north (approximately 4.56, 4.8
or 5.76 meters) of the foot of the ramp. The Terumas ha'Deshen (a
shovel-full of ashes lifted from the bonfire of the outer Mizbe'ach) and
ashes from the Menorah and the inner Mizbe'ach were put there every morning.
Additionally, when a bird was offered as an Olas ha'Of, the Kohen cut out
the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some
Tana'im, the crop and the intestines -- Zevachim 65a) and threw them onto
this Beis ha'Deshen.
(b) The Beis ha'Deshen mentioned in our Gemara is either the one next to the
Kevesh (see above, a:1 -- RASHI) or the one next to the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon
(see above, a:2 -- SHITAH MEKUBETZES #6). (The words "Shefech ha'Deshen"
mentioned in RASHI KESAV YAD seem to be an error.)
2. The second Beis ha'Deshen was located immediately to the east of the
outer Mizbe'ach. It was used for burning the parts of certain Korbanos that
became Pesulim, where the Pesul occurred before the Zerikas ha'Dam. These
parts were the meat and the Eimurim of Kodshei ha'Kodashim, the Eimurim of
the Kodshim Kalim, and the Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim (the bulls and
goats, the remains of which were burned) (Pesachim 24a, Zevachim 104b).
3. The third Beis ha'Deshen was located on Har ha'Bayis and was used for
burning the Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim that became Pesulim, where the
Pesul occurred after the Zerikas ha'Dam (according to Rav Nachman Amar Rabah
bar Avuha) or after they were taken out of the Azarah (according to Tani
4. The fourth Beis ha'Deshen was also called the Shefech ha'Deshen. Most of
the ashes from the sacrifices burned on the outer Mizb'ach were cleared away
to the Tapu'ach, a large pile of ashes in the middle of the Mizbe'ach. The
Torah states that when this pile becomes excessively large, the ashes must
be cleared away to the Shefech ha'Deshen, the ritually clean place outside
the camp in the desert or outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the
Mizbe'ach are deposited (Vayikra 4:12, 6:4). The Parim and Se'irim
ha'Nisrafim that did not become Pesulim during their Avodah were also burned
in this Beis ha'Deshen.
6) [line 24] HAVI BAH REBBI YOCHANAN - Rebbi Yochanan asked a question about
it (Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon's statement)
7) [line 25] DIL'MA'ALAH - of above (that is, on the fires of the Mizbe'ach
itself -- RASHI KESAV YAD)
8) [line 25] HAINU AVUHA - then it (his opinion) is [exactly like] his
father [Rebbi Shimon's opinion]
9) [line 26] DIL'MATAH - below (see above, entry #5:b)
10) [line 26] YESH LECHA DAVAR SHE'KAREV L'MATAH?! - Is there anything that
is offered (i.e. burned as a Korban) below, on the floor of the Azarah?!
11) [line 27] DILMA L'IBUD - perhaps it is simply scattered to waste [on the
Beis ha'Deshen next to the Kevesh]
12) [line 27] ACHICHU ALEI - they laughed at (scoffed, derided) him
13) [line 29] L'ACHILAH HIKASHTIHA V'LO L'DAVAR ACHER - the verse (Vayikra
6:16) compares the Minchah of a Kohen (specifically, the Minchas Chotei of a
Kohen) to the Minchas Chavitin (Vayikra 6:15) only for the Halachah that it
is not to be eaten, and not for any other Halachah (i.e. and not for the
Halachah that the Sheyarim are burned on the Mizbe'ach. Rather, the Sheyarim
are scattered on the Beis ha'Deshen -- RASHI KESAV YAD)
14) [line 32] SAKINA CHARIFA MAFSEKA KERA'EI - a sharp knife is cutting up
the verses?! (and you, Abaye, are Doresh the end of the verse before the
15) [line 36] TEDIRAH LO CHATEI BASIM REICHEI - this is a mnemonic device
that stands for the topics that are in common between the Minchas Nedavah of
a Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin, as follows:
1. *Tedirah* refers to the fact that both the Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen and
the Minchas Chavitin are *Tedirin* - offered on a frequent, constant basis.
The Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen can be offered on any day and the Minchas
Chavitin is offered every morning and afternoon. The Minchas Chotei of a
Kohen is not constant, but depends upon whether a Kohen sins, transgressing
one of the sins for which a Korban Oleh v'Yored is brought (see Background
to Menachos 72:30:a), and whether he is very poor.
16) [line 37] ISARON CHOVAH - this is a mnemonic device that stands for the
topics that are in common between the Minchas Chotei of a Kohen and the
Minchas Chavitin, as follows:
2. *Lo Chatei* refers to the fact that both the Minchas Nedavah of a Kohen
and the Minchas Chavitin are *not* brought because of a *Cheit*, a sin. The
Minchas Chotei of a Kohen is specifically brought because of a sin.
3. *Basim Reichei* refers to the fact that both the Minchas Nedavah of a
Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin (a) both require oil and Levonah, which make
its *aroma spiced*. The Minchas Chotei of a Kohen has no oil or Levonah; (b)
have the words *Rei'ach Nicho'ach* in the verses that command them. The
Minchas Chotei of a Kohen does not have these words in its verses.
1. *Isaron* refers to the fact that both the Minchas Chotei of a Kohen and
the Minchas Chavitin are brought from one *Isaron* of flour. The Minchas
Nedavah of a Kohen can be offered from any amount of flour that the Kohen
2. *Chovah* refers to the fact that both and the Minchas Chavitin are
brought as a *Chovah* - they are obligatory offerings. The Minchas Chotei of
a Kohen is obligatory when a Kohen sins transgressing one of the sins for
which a Korban Oleh v'Yored is brought (see Background to Menachos 72:30:a),
and whether he is very poor. The Minchas Chavitin is the obligation of the
Kohen Gadol every day.
17) [line 37] HANACH NEFISHAN - those (the similarities between the Minchas
Nedavah of a Kohen and the Minchas Chavitin) are greater in number
18a) [line 40] ELYONAH - (lit. the upper one) the Minchas Chavitin, which is
mentioned first (above -- Vayikra 6:15)
b) [line 40] TACHTONAH - (lit. the lower one) the Minchas Chotei of a
Kohen, which is mentioned second (below -- Vayikra 6:16)
19) [line 42] KALIL KALIL - the two words "Kalil" in the above two verses:
"Kalil Taktar" (Vayikra 6:15) and "Kalil Tiheyeh" (Vayikra 6:16)
20) [last line] EIMURIN
The Eimurim are the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on
the Mizbe'ach. They consist of: 1. the layer of fat covering the stomachs;
2. all other fat attached to the stomachs; 3. the two kidneys; 4. the fat on
the kidneys; 5. The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or
a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).
21) [last line] LAV D'ZARUS LO KA MIBA'I LI - I am not asking about the
negative commandment of a Zar (a non-Kohen) performing the Avodah (AVODAH:
(a) While Benei Yisrael were in the desert after the Exodus from Egypt,
HaSh-m chose the Leviyim to officiate in the Divine Service to replace the
Bechoros, who had been the Divine servants until then (Bamidbar 3:12, 18:6).
He then separated the family of Aharon to become the Kohanim, the ones
actually responsible for the performance of the Divine Service, while the
Leviyim were to be their helpers (ibid. 18:1-7, Devarim 18:1-5). Anyone
other than a Kohen or a Levi is known as a "Zar," "stranger" with regard to
the specific actions that may be performed only by the Kohanim or Leviyim.
(b) A Zar who performs certain parts of the Divine Service can be liable to
the death penalty according to some of the Tana'im and Misah b'Yedei
Shamayim according to others (Mishnah Sanhedrin 81b, Gemara Sanhedrin 84a).
(c) With regard to eating the Eimurim, which are meant to be burned upon the
Mizbe'ach, even a Kohen is considered a Zar.
22) [line 5] MINCHAS KOHANIM
A voluntary Korban Minchah (see Background to Menachos 72:25-26) that is
brought by a Kohen does not need Kemitzah. Similarly, a Korban Minchas
Chotei (see Background to Menachos 72:30) that is brought by a Kohen does
not need Kemitzah (but Rebbi Shimon argues -- Daf 72b). The entire Minchah
is burned on the Mizbe'ach. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chol Minchas
Kohen, Kalil Tiheyeh, Lo Se'achel." - "And every meal-offering of a Kohen
shall be entirely offered; it shall not be eaten" (Vayikra 6:16).
23) [line 5] MINCHAS KOHEN MASHI'ACH
(a) The Minchas Chavitin is brought by the Kohen Gadol every day. It
consists of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters,
depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of wheat flour made into
twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after
being boiled and baked. Next, the rolls are folded *without* breaking them
(Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah and Haktarah are performed (see
Background to Menachos 72:25a:c).
(b) Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening
(Vayikra 6:13). The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen
Gadol, but he did not personally have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The
amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin rolls was one Revi'is
(approximately 75, 86.4 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic
24) [line 6] MINCHAS NESACHIM
(a) The Minchas Nesachim is a Korban Minchah that is brought together with a
Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur
(Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). It is
called Minchas "Nesachim" because it is normally brought along with the
Nesachim (wine libations) that are offered with these Korbanos.
(b) The mixture of flour and olive oil is salted and completely burned on
the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver
libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the
Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount
of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified
in Bamidbar (ibid.).
25) [line 7] SHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a) The Shtei ha'Lechem Minchah brought on Shavu'os (Vayikra 23:16-17)
consists of two loaves of bread made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour
(approximately 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing
Halachic opinions) mixed with Se'or (sourdough), which causes them to rise
and become Chametz. Each loaf is seven Tefachim long (approximately 53.2, 56
or 67.2 cm) and four Tefachim wide (30.4, 32 or 38.4 cm); the corners of the
loaves project upward to a height of four Tefachim (Menachos 96a, RAMBAM
Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:10).
(b) In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, the Kohanim offer in the name
of the Tzibur various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep
(the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim (Vayikra 23:18-19). Tenufah
(waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Menachos 60:3) of the Shtei
ha'Lechem is performed twice; once along with the live sheep and once with
the Chaza'os and Shokim (chests and right hind legs) of the sheep.
26) [line 8] LECHEM HA'PANIM
The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are
Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each
Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves
were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the
following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra
24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word
"l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of
Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves
are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering
of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
27) [line 10] OLAH
(a) A person may offer a Korban Olah, which is burned entirely on the
Mizbe'ach, as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah, see Vayikra 1:2-17,
6:1-6), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Many other Korbenos Olah are Korbenos
Tzibur (communal sacrifices) and are obligatory, such as the Temidim
(Bamidbar 28:1-8) and Musafim (Bamidbar 28:9-29:39).
(b) Korbenos Olah are Kodshei Kodashim and therefore they may only be
slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the
owner (of the Olas Nedavah) presses his hands on the head of the animal
(Semichah). Korbenos Tzibur do not require Semichah (Daf 92a). The blood of
the Olah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the
Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of
flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban
(Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach
and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes
located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and
RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine
needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid., see
Background to Sotah 15:9).
(c) The hide of the Olah is given to the Kohanim and the rest of the animal
is dismembered and entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
28) [line 10] ORAH LA'KOHANIM - the hide of the Olah is given to the Kohanim
29) [line 11] OLAS HA'OF
The offering of the Olas ha'Of (e.g. in Vayikra 1:14-17) consists of four
1. MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Menachos 61:17:c) of the
Mizbe'ach, on the *southeastern* corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck
of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the
trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is
crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of
Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
2. MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird
onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is
located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3. HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire
on the Mizbe'ach.
4. HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of
the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines --
Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the
Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiya), salts it, and throws it
into the fire.
30a) [line] IKA MUR'AH V'NOTZAH - there are the crop and surrounding
feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the
intestines -- Zevachim 65a) [that are not placed upon the Mizbe'ach]
31) [line 12] NESACHIM - the wine libations that are part of the Minchas
Nesachim (see above, entry #24)
32) [line 12] LA'SHITIN AZLEI - they do not remain on the Mizbe'ach, but
rather flow down to the Shitin, a hollow dug under the auspices of David
ha'Melech, located under the Mizbe'ach of the Beis ha'Mikdash, into which
the water and wine libations flowed
33) [line 14] MEZALFO AL GABEI ISHIM - he sprinkles it on the fire of the
34) [line 18] CHATAS HA'OF
(a) The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav and Zavah,
by a Yoledes and Metzora who are poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba
l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash
v'Kodashav) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9):
Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy.
1. MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern
corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck (*Orpo* -
similar to the word Arifah) of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes
sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but not to
sever the entire neck of the bird.
(b) The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that
it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the
Mizbe'ach ("Ein Mimenu la'Ishim").
2. HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from
the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located
halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3. MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and
squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.
35) [line 18] LOG SHEMEN SHEL METZORA - the Log of olive oil of the Metzora
(for a discussion of the laws of a Metzora, see Background to Menachos
36) [line 19] IKA MATNOSAV - (a) there are the applications of oil onto the
right ear, thumb and big toe (Vayikra 14:14) [that do not go to the Kohanim]
(RASHI); (b) there are the seven sprinklings towards the Kodshei ha'Kodashim
(Vayikra 14:16) [that do not go to the Kohanim] (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #2)
37) [line 20] SHTEI HA'LECHEM HA'BA'OS BIFNEI ATZMAN LI'SEREIFAH ASYAN - the
Shtei ha'Lechem that are brought without Kivsei Atzeres must be burned
38) [line 22] HA'MENACHOS HA'NA'ASOS BI'CHELI - the Menachos that must be
prepared in a Keli Shares, e.g. Minchas Marcheshes
39a) [line 23] YETZIKAH - pouring in the remainder of the oil onto the dough
of the Minchah (the third time that the Kohen pours oil in the preparation
of the Menachos)
b) [line 24] BELILAH - pouring in more oil and mixing the flour and oil
(and water) (the second time that the Kohen pours oil in the preparation of
c) [line 24] MATAN SHEMEN BI'CHELI KODEM LA'ASIYASAN - placing a small
amount of oil in the utensil before the flour is added (the first time that
the Kohen pours oil in the preparation of the Menachos)
40a) [line 25] CHALOS BOLELAN DIVREI REBBI - Rebbi rules that the Chalos of
the Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur (RABEINU GERSHOM) are broken into pieces after
they are baked and mixed with oil before the Kemitzah (i.e. the Belilah is
not performed before the baking but rather afterwards; Rebbi later retracts
his opinion -- TOSFOS to Daf 75a DH Shapir)
b) [line 25] VA'CHACHAMIM OMRIM SOLES - and the Chachamim rule that the
Belilah is performed before the baking, when the flour is added, as is the
case with the Menachos that require oil
41a) [line 26] HA'CHALOS - the Chalos of the Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur (RASHI)
b) [line 26] REKIKIN MESHICHAH - the Rekikin of the Minchas Ma'afeh Sanur
42) [line 27] K'MIN KI - like the Greek letter "chi," which is shaped like
an "x" (RASHI to Kerisus 5b, RAMBAM Hilchos Kelei ha'Mikdash 1:9)
43) [line 29] "(V'IM MINCHAS MARCHESHES KORBANECHA) SOLES BA'SHEMEN
TE'ASEH" - "(And if your offering is a Minchas Marcheshes) it shall be
prepared with fine flour in oil" (Vayikra 2:7) - Since the verse mentions
that the flour is placed into the oil, we learn that oil muthe utensil at the onset of the preparation of the Minchah.