POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Menachos 40
1) LINEN GARMENTS
(a) (Beraisa - Beis Shamai): A Sadin (linen garment) is
exempt from Tzitzis;
(b) Beis Hillel obligate it.
(c) R. Eliezer bar Tzadok: But anyone who puts Techeiles on a
Sadin in Yerushalayim is Masmiha (astounds all who see
him)! (He argues with the first Tana, who says that Beis
Hillel obligate; alternatively, he disagrees concerning
Beis Shamai's opinion - if a Sadin was exempt, one who
puts Techeiles on it transgresses (Kilayim), he does not
(d) Rebbi: (If it really is obligated), why did Chachamim
forbid putting Tzitzis (some say - Techeiles) on it?
(e) R. Eliezer bar Tzadok: This is because (some) people are
ignorant (they do not know that the Mitzvah overrides the
Lav, they will think that Kilayim is always permitted).
(f) Question (Rabah bar bar Chana): Why didn't Chachamim tell
10 people to publicly wear it (to publicize the law that
Kilayim in Tzitzis is permitted)?
(g) Answer (Rava): All the more so, this will make
ignoramuses think that Kilayim is always permitted!
(h) Question: Why didn't Chachamim publicly teach that
Kilayim is permitted only for the Mitzvah of Techeiles?
(i) Answer #1: People will wear (wool) Tzitzis dyed with Kala
Ilan (a sap whose color resembles Techeiles).
1. Question: What is wrong if they do - even though
they do not fulfill the Mitzvah of Techeiles, they
fulfill the Mitzvah of Lavan!
2. Answer: Since the Mitzvah of Lavan can be fulfilled
with linen strings (without transgressing Kilayim),
the Mitzvah does not override Kilayim.
i. (Reish Lakish): If one can fulfill an Ase
without transgressing a Lav, he must; if not,
the Ase overrides the Lav.
3. Version #1 - Question: Chachamim should have enacted
that people must check Techeiles in the pots in
which it is cooked, by inserting a sample cloth!
4. Answer: They did not, for once Techeiles in the pot
is used to dye a sample (Tosfos (42B Mishum) - not
for the sake of the Mitzvah), it is invalid for the
5. Question: Letters should be sent out (instructing to
put a little Techeiles in an eggshell and test it,
to avoid disqualifying the entire pot)!
6. Version #2 - Question: Chachamim should have enacted
that people who buy Techeiles strings must check
them (with alum and sourdough, Daf 42B)!
7. Answer: This would not help, perhaps the strings
were made from test cloths (to see if the Techeiles
was cooked properly, they were not dyed Lishmah).
8. Question: Letters should be sent out informing
people that the strings must be dyed Lishmah (so the
dyers will discard test cloths)! (End of Version #2)
9. Answer: People do not heed such letters (Rashi; R.
Gershom - perhaps someone will not see the letter).
10. Objection (Rava): When Chachamim Me'aber (Rashi -
add a month to the year; R. Gershom - add a day to
Elul or Adar), we rely on letters to inform people,
one who ignores them might eat on (the true) Yom
Kipur or eat Chametz on Pesach, which are Chayavei
Kerisus - all the more so, we can rely on them
regarding the Ase of Techeiles!
(j) Answer #2 (Rava, and R. Zeira): Chachamim forbade a
Sadin, lest it tear within three fingers of the corner.
(Rashi - perhaps it will be fixed with linen threads, and
two such threads will be left hanging on the corner, for
the sake of Lavan, but they are invalid, for they were
not attached l'Shem Tzitzis; Tosfos - perhaps it will
tear after the Tzitzis were attached, disqualifying them,
and the garment will be fixed);
2) CONDITIONS OF ATTACHING THE "TZITZIS"
1. Since the strings were there before the corner was
fixed, they are invalid on account of Ta'aseh v'Lo
Min ha'Asuy (we must fulfill the Mitzvah when
attaching Tzitzis - here, the Tzitzis were attached
before the corner was finished).
(k) Answer #3 (Rav Zeira): Chachamim decreed against a Sadin
on account of a night garment;
2. R. Zeira took the Tzitzis off his Sadin (on account
of this decree).
1. Version #1 (Rashi, Tosfos): Since there is no
Mitzvah to put (Tzitzis or) Techeiles on a night
garment, one who wears it transgresses Kilayim
2. Version #2 (Rambam): Since the Mitzvah does not
apply at night, one who wears it at night
3. (Tosfos - Rav Zeira is not *R.* Zeira; Rashba - R.
Zeira gave this answer when he was in Bavel, before
he got (Semichah in Eretz Yisrael and) the title
(a) (Rava, and R. Zeira): If a garment is made of cloth and
the corners are of skin, one must put Tzitzis on the
(b) Question: What is the reason?
(c) Answer: The essence of the garment must be considered a
(d) (Rav Achai): It only depends on the corners - if they are
made of cloth, one must put Tzitzis on them.
(e) (Rava): If one put Tzitzis on the three corners of an
unfinished garment, then finished the garment, the
Tzitzis are invalid on account of Ta'aseh v'Lo Min
(f) Question (Beraisa): Tzadikim of old would put Tzitzis (on
two corners) once they had woven the three fingers (width
or length) of the garment. (According to Rava, this is
invalid, for the garment is not yet large enough to
require Tzitzis, and it lacks two corners (of the final
(g) Answer: It should say, they would put Tzitzis (on all
four corners) once they were within three fingers of
finishing the garment (for the (corners of the) outer
edge will be considered part of the (final) corners, the
last material will merely add on to the existing
(h) Question: Are we really concerned for Ta'aseh v'Lo Min
1. (R. Zeira): If one attached Tzitzis to a garment
which already had Kosher Tzitzis, the latter are
valid (Rashi; according to the Rosh - even though
the first three (of the second set) were not valid
when attached, for the first set is not Batul until
all four of the new set are attached!)
(i) Answer (Rava): Since he transgresses Bal Tosif (the
prohibition to add to Mitzvos), attaching the second set
is not considered an action (so when he later cuts the
first set, it is as if he *then* attaches the second set,
he fulfills the Mitzvah when attaching them)!
(j) Objection (Rav Papa): If he does not intend to add to the
Mitzvah, rather, to use the new Tzitzis and annul the
first ones, he does not transgress Bal Tosif, attaching
the second set is an action, Ta'aseh v'Lo Min ha'Asuy