POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Menachos 65
1) MORDECHAI'S SPECIAL TALENT
(a) (Mishnah): Pesachyah was appointed over Kinim - this is
2) REAPING THE "OMER"
1. He is called Pesachyah because he opens words and
expounds them, and knows all 70 languages.
2. Objection: Everyone on the Sanhedrin knows all 70
i. (R. Yochanan): We only put on a Sanhedrin
Chachamim of great stature and appearance, that
are old, understand witchcraft, and know all 70
languages in order that Beis Din should not
have to hear testimony through an interpreter.
3. Retraction: Rather, he is called Pesachyah because
he Bayil (mixes) words and expounds them (e.g. the
4. Support: "Mordechai Bilshan".
(a) (Mishnah): On Erev Pesach, Shluchei Beis Din tie the ends
of the (attached) sheaves to facilitate cutting them;
3) WHEN WE START COUNTING THE "OMER"
(b) All the surrounding cities gather there, in order that
the reaping will be a loud event.
(c) When it is dark, each reaper asks 'Is it night?' The
crowd answers 'Yes!' This is repeated three times.
(d) Each reaper asks 'Is this a sickle?' The crowd answers
'Yes!' (three times.)
(e) Each reaper asks 'Is this a box?' The crowd answers
'Yes!' (three times.)
(f) If it is Shabbos, each asks 'Is it Shabbos?' The crowd
answers 'Yes!' (three times.)
(g) Each asks 'Should I reap?' The crowd says 'Reap!' (three
(h) Question: Why do we make this such an event?
(i) Answer: This is to emphatically disprove the Baisusim
(people who do not accept the Oral tradition, like
Tzedukim), who say that the Omer is not reaped on Motzei
Yom Tov (rather, on Motzei Shabbos.)
(j) (Gemara - Beraisa #1): It is forbidden to fast on the
following days (they are like Yomim Tovim on account of
good things that Hash-m bestowed to us); on some of them,
even eulogies are forbidden:
1. From Rosh Chodesh Nisan until the eighth
commemorates the establishment of the Tamid (this
will be explained), eulogies (R. Gershom - alone;
(k) The establishment of the Tamid - the Tzedukim used to
expound "Es ha'Kevesh Echad *Ta'aseh* (singular)..." to
teach that an individual may bring the Tamid from his own
Rashi - and all the more so fasting) are forbidden;
2. From the eighth of Nisan until the end of Pesach
commemorates the establishment of Shavu'os, eulogies
are (Rashi's text - fasting is) forbidden.
1. Chachamim refuted them - "Es Korbani...*Tishmeru*
(plural)", all Korbanos Tzibur come from Terumas
(a) (Continuation of Beraisa #1): The establishment of
Shavu'os - the Baisusim used to say that Shavu'os is
always on Sunday (because we count seven weeks starting
1. R. Yochanan ben Zakai: Fools! What is your source
(that 'Shabbos' does not refer to Yom Tov, which is
also called 'Shabason'?)
2. Only one of them answered him - 'Moshe loved Yisrael
- since Shavu'os is only one day, he enacted (with
Hash-m's approval) that it should be after Shabbos,
it will be like a two-day Yom Tov for Yisrael to
3. R. Yochanan ben Zakai: "Achad Asar Yom me'Chorev..."
- if Moshe made enactments because he loved Yisrael,
all the more so he should have brought them into
Eretz Yisrael as soon as possible, and not delay
them 40 years in the Midbar!
4. The Baisusi: Do you consider that a refutation of my
(b) (Beraisa #2): "U'Sfartem *Lachem*" - counting is a
Mitzvah on every individual; "mi'Macharas ha'Shabbos" -
after Yom Tov.
5. R. Yochanan ben Zakai: Fool! We have proof, I can
freely reject your nonsense.
i. Contradiction: It says "Tisperu Chamishim Yom"
(count until (but not including) 50 - it does
not matter when in the week we start counting),
and it says "Sheva Shabasos Temimos Tihyenah"
(implying that seven full weeks (from Motzei
Shabbos to Shabbos) must be counted!)
6. R. Eliezer: We have a different source - "Tispar
Lach" the count depends on Beis Din, for they
Mekadesh Yom Tov (by fixing the start of each
ii. Resolution: (Always, we start counting
immediately after the first day of Yom Tov -)
if Yom Tov is on Shabbos, the count of 49 days
encompasses seven full weeks; if Yom Tov is any
other day, there are not seven full weeks, we
only fulfill "Tisperu Chamishim Yom".)
i. "Mi'Macharas ha'Shabbos" - the day after Yom
Tov - it cannot be the day after Shabbos, for
that does not depend on Beis Din.
7. R. Yehoshua says, the Torah says count days to
Mekadesh the month, and to count days to Mekadesh
i. Version #1 (Rashi): Just like it is evident
when to start counting towards a month (we
count 29 days after the Nolad (new moon, the
next day can be Rosh Chodesh), it is evident
when to start counting towards Shavu'os (after
8. R. Yishmael says, the Torah says to bring the Omer
on Pesach and Shtei ha'Lechem on Shavu'os;
ii. Version #2 (R. Tam): Just like the coming of a
month is evident (the moon is invisble), also
the coming of Shavu'os (when the moon is the
size it reaches on the 5th of the month.) (end
of Version #2)
iii. If Shavu'os is always on Sunday (it can vary
from the 6th to the 12th of the month,) this
(Rashi - the start of the count) is not
i. Just like Shtei ha'Lechem is brought on the
festival, at the beginning (Shavu'os is
followed by six days of Tashulim to bring
Korbanos ha'Regel if they were not brought on
Yom Tov), the Omer is brought at the beginning
9. R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, it says "Shabbos"
regarding the end of the count ("Ad mi'Macharas
ha'Shabbos ha'Shevi'is...)" and the beginning
("U'Sfartem Lachem mi'Macharas ha'Shabbos");
i. Just like the end of the count (Shavu'os) is a
Regel, and Shabbos (this refers to the last
week counted) is next to the start of the
Regel, also the beginning of the count (the
Omer) is during the Regel (Pesach) and is next
to the start of the Regel.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it means after Shabbos Bereishis
(i.e. what we normally call Shabbos!)
2. Rejection (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah): "Tisperu
Chamishim Yom" - you always count 50 days (after the
first day of Pesach, just like when Pesach is on
Shabbos, then all agree that we count from Motzei
i. If you always count from Motzei Shabbos (and
require full weeks), sometimes it is 51,
52...up to 56 days!