POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Menachos 71
MENACHOS 71 - Dedicated in honor of the 80th Birthday of Jean Turkel
Rafalowicz by the Turkel/Linzer Family. Mazal Tov on reaching this
milestone. May you be Zocheh to continue to see Nachas from your children,
grandchildren, and great-grandchildren until 120 years!
1) THE "OMER" PERMITS WHAT ALREADY TOOK ROOT
(a) Question (R. Elazar): The Mishnah says that if Hashrashah
was before the Omer, the Omer permits it - what is the
2) REAPING THE "OMER"
(b) Answer #1 (R. Oshaya (the Amora)): It says that the Omer
is brought from "Aviv" (fully ripened grain) - this
implies that what is not Aviv is Pasul for the Omer, but
becomes permitted (to eat.)
(c) Rejection: Perhaps the Omer permits grain that is a third
ripened (this is like Aviv), but not if there was only
(d) Answer #2 (Shmuel): (We count the Omer) "Me'Hachel
Chermesh" - this implies that what cannot be cut (i.e.
Hashrashah, it has not yet grown above ground) is Pasul
for the Omer, but becomes permitted!
(e) Rejection: Perhaps the Omer permits grain that has grown
a little, i.e. fodder (one does not cut it with a
sickle), but not Hashrashah!
(f) Answer #3 (R. Yitzchak): "(Me'Hachel Chermesh) ba'Kamah"
-- this implies that what is not standing in the field
(i.e. Hashrashah) is Pasul for the Omer, but becomes
(g) Rejection: Perhaps the Omer permits Agam (grain that has
grown just enough to bend it over onto itself), but not
(h) Answer #4 (Rava): "Asher Tizra" (the verse discusses
Shtei ha'Lechem, it permits (for Korbanos) what the Omer
permitted to people - it follows that the Omer permits
(i) Question (Rav Papa): If so, even what was Nizra (planted,
even before Hashrashah) should be permitted!
(j) Answer (Rava): It says "Ba'Sadeh" (this is not until
(a) (Mishnah): One may harvest Beis ha'Shelachin in (some
texts - or) a valley, but one may not make piles of the
(b) In Yericho, they would harvest (Beis ha'Shelachin) with
Chachamim's approval, they made piles against the will of
Chachamim, but Chachamim did not protest.
(c) One may harvest fodder to feed it to his animal;
(d) R. Yehudah says, this is only if he started harvesting
before it was a third grown - one may not start after
(e) R. Shimon says, even after this he may start to harvest
to feed his animal.
(f) One may harvest:
1. For the sake of young trees (to avoid Kilayim, e.g.
grain sprouted by itself amidst growing trees, or
vice-versa; alternatively, so the grain will not
harm the trees);
(g) One may not tie bundles of grain, one may make bundles
without tying them.
2. To make room for (people for) Birkas Avelim or room
(h) L'Chatchilah, barley should be cut (Lishmah) for the
Omer; if there is no attached barley, we may use detached
(i) L'Chatchilah, moist barley should be used; if there is no
moist barley, we may use dry.
(j) L'Chatchilah, the barley should be cut at night; if it
was cut during the day, it is Kosher; it overrides
(k) (Gemara - Beraisa - R. Binyamin) Contradiction: It says
"U'Ktzartem Es Ketzirah" (it is permitted to reap before
the Omer), and it says "(Omer) Reishis Ketzirchem El
ha'Kohen" (the Omer must be the first reaping!)
1. Resolution: One may not reap (before the Omer) from
a field from which the Omer may be brought, one may
reap from a field from which the Omer may not be
(l) (Mishnah): In Yericho, they would harvest with
Chachamim's approval, they made piles against the will of
Chachamim (but Chachamim did not protest.)
2. Suggestion: We should say, one may not reap barley,
for the Omer is brought from barley, one may reap
anything else, since the Omer may not be brought
3. Rejection: R. Yochanan (70B, 3:f) taught that none
of the five grains may be reaped before the Omer.
(m) Question: Who is our Tana, who specifies whether or not
(n) Answer: It is R. Yehudah (this will be explained).
(o) Question: R. Yehudah holds that Chachamim disapproved of
the pre-Omer harvest in Yericho (unlike our Tana!)
1. (Beraisa - R. Meir): Six things were done in
Yericho, Chachamim approved of only three of them:
i. They would graft date trees the entire day of
Erev Pesach (Melachah is forbidden, almost like
Chol ha'Mo'ed - they held that this is not an
2. Chachamim disapproved of three:
ii. They were Korech Shma Yisrael (they did not
pause between words - some say, between
'Yisrael' and 'Hash-m', or between 'Echad' and
iii. They harvested before the Omer.
i. They made piles of grain before the Omer;
3. R. Yehudah: If Chachamim approved, everyone would do
so (not only in Yericho!)
ii. They benefited from branches of Hekdesh carob
or sycamore trees;
iii. In famine years, they breached the walls of
their gardens and orchards to enable poor
people to enter and eat fruit that fell on
Shabbos and Yom Tov.
4. Rather, Chachamim disapproved of all six; three of
them they did not protest - grafting the entire day,
Korech Shma, harvesting and making piles before the
i. They protested about three - benefiting from
branches, encouraging the poor to eat fallen
fruit, and they left Pe'ah (a corner of the
field is not harvested, it is left for the
poor) of vegetables.
3) PREMATURE HARVESTING
5. Counter-question: Surely, the Beraisa is mistaken -
it says that they disapproved of six, but it lists
(p) Answer to both questions: We must delete harvesting (and
making piles) from R. Yehudah's words in the Beraisa.
(a) (Mishnah): One may harvest fodder and feed it to his
(b) (Mishnah): The following are a division regarding Pe'ah
(they obligate leaving a separate Pe'ah on each side):
1. A Nachal (Rashi - valley; Rambam - river; Rashbam -
rocky area), a Shelulis (pond, or irrigation ditch),
a public or private road, or a public or private
path that is used in winter and summer;
(c) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): R. Meir holds like R. Shimon who
permits harvesting fodder (before the Omer) to feed
animals even after one third growth;
2. A fallow field, a plowed field, a different crop;
3. R. Meir says, if an area was harvested for fodder,
4. Chachamim say, it does not divide unless it was
plowed. (Harvesting for fodder is like the beginning
of normal harvesting, therefore it does not divide.)
1. He holds that harvesting fodder is not considered
(d) Objection (Rav Acha bar Huna): If (the produce in) the
middle of a field was taken by locusts or ants, or if the
wind detached it, all agree that it requires separate
Pe'os if and only if the place was plowed.
1. Surely, it means that R. Meir (who in the Mishnah is
Mechayev two Pe'os even if it was not plowed) admits
in this case.
(e) Rather, R. Meir holds like R. Yehudah, who permits
continuing to harvest after one third growth, but forbids
starting to harvest then.
2. If the Mishnah (of Pe'ah) discusses produce less
than one third grown, we can say that the Beraisa
discusses (produce at least) a third grown;
3. But if the Mishnah also discusses produce that grew
a third, and R. Meir does not consider human reaping
to be reaping, all the more so (in the Beraisa)
reaping not done by people should not be considered
reaping (he should require two Pe'os, even if it was
(f) Objection: Granted, R. Yehudah says that harvesting
fodder for animals is not considered harvesting - we have
no source that he says that harvesting fodder for people
is not considered harvesting!
1. If he would say so, we would have a three-way
argument in the Mishnah (whenever R. Yehudah says
'This is only when' (in the Mishnah), he comes to
explain the first Tana. Rashba - it is not enough to
say that R. Yehudah explains the first Tana, for
they could still argue about matters that R. Yehudah
did not discuss.)
(g) (Rav Dimi): R. Meir holds like his Rebbi, R. Akiva, who
says that premature harvesting for people is not
1. (Mishnah - R. Akiva): If one harvested scattered
patches in his field and left over moist patches, he
leaves one Pe'ah for each of them;
(h) Question: But Ravin cited R. Yochanan to say that R.
Akiva requires separate Pe'os even when he harvests to
store the grain! (Presumably, Rav Dimi's teaching should
also be like R. Yochanan (his Rebbi) - but R. Meir
required only one Pe'ah even when locusts ate after a
third growth, all the more so when people harvested -
this is unlike R. Akiva!)
2. Chachamim say, he leaves one Pe'ah for all of them.
3. (Rav Yehudah): R. Akiva's law is only when he
harvests for Klayos (i.e. before one third growth),
but not if he harvests to store the grain (Tosfos -
after one third growth; Rashi - when it is fully
(i) Answer: R. Meir holds like R. Akiva before one third
growth, not after one third growth.