ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Menachos 43
(a) To examine the Techeiles, Rav Yitzchak b'rei de'Rav Yehudah would bring
alum (or straw [Rambam]), fenugreek-juice and urine from a forty-day old
baby. 'Meimei-Raglayim ben Arba'im Yom' might also mean - urine that is
forty days old.
(b) He would then soak the Techeiles in them ...
(c) ... if the appearance of the Techeiles became spoilt, it was a sign that
it was Kala Ilan; whereas if it did not, it was genuine Techeiles.
(a) Rav Ivya cited Rav Avira who would bring hard barley yeast - which he
baked in the Techeiles. If it improved, he would know that it was
Techeiles, whereas if it deteriorated, it was Kala Ilan.
(b) The significance of 'Shinuy Sheker, Shinuy Emes' is - if someone changes
a stipulation by detracting from his word, it is a bad thing, whereas if he
changes by adding to it, it is a good thing (Like here, if the Techeiles
improved, it was a good sign; whereas if it deteriorated, it was a bad
(c) To reconcile the Beraisa with all of this - we explain the Tana's words
'Techeiles Ein Lah Bedikah' to mean - that there is no way of testing
whether Techeiles has been prepared to use (in which case it will be Kasher)
of for testing (and it will be Pasul). Alternatively, he means - that one
cannot examine a caldron of Techeiles (without taking some of it out for
testing, as we explained).
(a) When they tested the Techeiles that Mar from Mashchi (who lived in the
time of Rav Acha'i) brought ...
1. ... with the first of the above tests (that of Rav Yitzchak b'rei de'Rav
Yehudah) - it became spoiled.
(b) The b'nei Eretz Yisrael reconciled this apparent discrepancy - by
combining the two tests. In other words, even if one performed Rav Yitzchak
b'rei de'Rav Yehudah's test, and it turned out to be negative, one still
remained with the option of performing that cited by Rav Ivya, and the
Techeiles would still be Kasher, as long as it still improves with the
2. ... with the second test (that cited by Rav Ivya) - it improved.
(a) When we state that Rebbi Mani was Machmir like the Beraisa, we mean -
that he would make a point of buying Tzitzis from an expert.
(b) That old man commented - that those who lived long ago used to do that,
and succeeded in their business ventures.
(c) The Beraisa rules - that someone who purchases a garment with Tzitzis
1. ... a Jewish store - may trust that it is Kasher, and the same applies to
someone who buys from ...
(d) What makes the leniency by purchasing Tzitzis from a Nochri merchant all
the more surprising is - the fact that Chazal forbade selling Tzitzis to a
2. ... a Nochri merchant - because he will not risk losing his reputation by
purchasing them from a fellow Nochri (i.e. one can safely assume that he
bought them from a Yisrael).
3. ... a private Nochri - must consider them Pasul.
(a) One of the reasons that Chazal forbade the sale of a garment with
Tzitzis to a Nochri is because of 'Zonah', meaning - that we are afraid that
either the same Nochri may have a relationship with a prostitute, who,
mistaking him for a Yisrael (because he wears Tzitzis), will live with him,
and transgress the La'av of "Lo Sis'chaten Bam"; or that he will give them
as an Esnan to a Nochri prostitute, who will then tell people that she
received them as a gift from P'loni Yisrael, thereby slurring his name.
(b) Rav Yehudah's reason for the prohibition - is in case that same Nochri
accompanies a Yisrael on a journey, and because the Yisrael, mistaking him
for a fellow Yisrael (because he is wearing Tzitzis), is not on his guard,
the Nochri will be able to kill him.
(a) Rav Yehudah attached Tziztis to his wife's garments - because he
maintained 'Laylah Z'man Tzitzis' (in which case it is a 'Mitzvas Asei
she'La'av ha'Zeman Gerama' [not bound by time], which pertains to women no
less than to men.
(b) The reason that he would recite a B'rachah over his own Tzitzis every
morning was - because he held like Rebbi - who ruled, with regard to
Tefilin, that one recites a B'rachah each time that one puts them on (even
though on any given day, there is only one Mitzvah).
(c) Nevertheless, Rav Yehudah would recite a B'rachah only each morning (and
not each time he took off a garment and put it on again even more than once
a day) - because being an extremely modest man, he would not take off any
garment in the course of the day, once he had put it on in the morning.
(d) The significance of 'each morning' is - that that was when he would put
on his day Beged (see 'Eizehu Mekoman')
(a) The Tana Kama in the Beraisa includes everyone in the Mitzvah of Tzitzis
'Kohanim, Levi'im, Yisre'eilim, Geirim, Nashim and Avadim'. Rebbi Shimon
argues over -'Nashim', which he exempts, because it is a Mitzvas Asei
she'ha'Zeman Gerama' (since he holds 'Laylah La'av Z'man Tzitzis Hu').
(b) We ask why the Tana finds it necessary to mention 'Kohanim, Levi'im and
Yisre'eilim. And we answer that seeing as we learn from the juxtaposition of
"Lo Silbash Sha'atnez ... Gedilim Ta'aseh Lach", we might have thought -
that only Yisre'eilim, who are subject to the Isur of Sha'atnez, are Chayav
Tzitzis, but not Kohanim, who are not.
(c) The only Beged of the Bigdei Kehunah that contains Sha'atnez is - the
Avneit (the belt).
(a) Rebbi Shimon learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "u'Re'isem Oso" - that a night-garment (or a garment that one wears
at night) is Patur from Tzitzis.
(b) We include the garment of a blind person and exclude a night garment
(and not vice-versa) - because although a blind man cannot see, others can
(whereas at night-time, nobody can).
2. ... "Asher Techaseh Bah" (which is superfluous, and serves as a
'Ribuy') - that the garment belonging to a blind person requires Tzitzis.
(c) The Rabbanan learn from ...
1. ... "*Asher* Techaseh Bah" (which is otherwise redundant) - that a
five-cornered garment requires Tzitzis.
(d) The Chachamim interpret the Pasuk "Asher Techaseh Bah" and " Gedilim ...
al Arba Kanfos Kesuscha" the way they do, and not vice-versa - because a
five-cornered garment has four corners (whereas a three-cornered one does
2. ... "Gedilim ... al *Arba* Kanfos Kesuscha" - "Arba", 've'Lo Shalosh'.
3. ... "u'Re'isem Oso" - that looking at the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, will help
us to fulfill the Mitzvah of Keri'as Sh'ma, as we shall see shortly.
(a) Based on the Mishnah in B'rachos, looking at the Mitzvah of Tzitzis
helps us to fulfill the Mitzvah of K'riyas Sh'ma (as we just explained) -
inasmuch as the latter falls due from the moment that one can distinguish
between the Techeiles and the Lavan of one's Tzitzis.
(b) When, in another Beraisa, the Tana says 'Re'ei Mitzvah Zu u'Zechor
Mitzvah Acheres ha'Semuchah Lah' - he is referring to the Isur of wearing
Kil'ayim (which, as we have already learned, is written immediately prior to
it) See Hagahos Redal.
(c) In still another Beraisa, the Tana writes that once someone becomes
Chayav to fulfill this Mitzvah, he becomes Chayav to fulfill all the
Mitzvos, by which he means - either that most Mitzvos fall due in the
daytime, simultaneously with the Mitzvah of Tzitzis (to teach us that
Tzitzis is a Mitzvas Asei she'ha'Zeman Gerama, like Rebbi Shimon), or that
as soon as a boy becomes obligated to fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, when
he turns bar-Mitzvah, he becomes Chayav to keep all the Mitzvos (see
(d) The Tana of yet another Beraisa learns from the juxtaposition of ...
1. ... Tzitzis ("u'Re'isem Oso") to "u'Zechartem es Kol Mitzvos Hashem" -
that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis is compared to all the Mitzvos (also hinted in
the numerical value of "Tzitzis", plus the four Tzitzis plus the eight
threads, as we already learned).
2. ... "u'Re'isem Oso" to "u'Zechartem es ... " to "Va'asisem Osam" - that
seeing leads to remembering, which in turn, leads to performing.
(a) Rebbi Shimon in a Beraisa, learns from the Gezeirah-Shavah' "u'Re'isem
*Oso*" and "es Hashem Elokecha Tiyra, *ve'Oso* Sa'avod" - that someone who
fulfills the Mitzvah of Tzitzis with Zerizus (alacrity), will merit to greet
the Shechinah, when the time comes.
(b) The Tana of another Beraisa describes Yisrael as beloved, because Hashem
surrounded them with Mitzvos - Tefilin on their heads and on their arms,
Tzitzis on their garments and Mezuzos on their door-posts.
(c) The connection between what we just said and the Pasuk "Sheva ba'Yom
Hilalticha al Mishpetei Tzidkecha" is - that these four (or three) Mitzvos,
really incorporate seven, seeing as Tzitzis incorporates four Tzitziyos
(which, unlike the Parshiyos of the Tefilin and the Mezuzah, are visible).
(a) When David Hamelech once entered the bath-house, he lamented that he was
spiritually naked, because none of these Mitzvos applied there. He consoled
himself however - when he recalled the B'ris Milah (which reminded
constantly, that he was an Eved Hashem).
(b) After exiting the bath-house - he sang "Lamnatzei'ach al ha'Sheminis",
in honor of the eighth Mitzvah (see Agados Maharsha).
(c) When Rebbi Eliezer quoted the Pasuk "ve'ha'Chut ha'Meshulash Lo
bi'Meheirah Yinasek", he was referring to - the same three Mitzvos that we
are currently discussing, Tefilin, Tzitzis and Mezuzah.
(d) Someone who keeps all three, he says - will be protected from sin, as
the Pasuk writes "Choneh Mal'ach Hashem Saviv li'Yerei'av Va'yechaltzem"
(meaning that Hashem will deliver them from sinning).
(a) Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa, explain the deeper meaning of Techeiles. By
virtue of its similar appearance, it reminds a person of - the sea, which
reminds him of the sky, which in turn, reminds him of the Kisei ha'Kavod of
Hashem (see Rashash).
(b) The "Ma'aseh Livnas ha'Sapir" that is beneath Hashem's Feet is
reminiscent of - the Kisei ha'Kavod (for so the Pasuk writes "ke'Mar'eh Even
Sapir D'mus Kisei").
(c) According to Rebbi Meir, the sin of negating the Lavan is graver than
that of negating the Techeiles - because it is that much easier.
(d) And he gives a Mashal to two Avadim - who were commanded, one to bring a
seal of clay (as a sign of Avdus [see Tosfos DH 'Chosem']), the other, a
seal of gold. If both failed to carry out their instructions, it is obvious
that the sin of the first one is the graver of the two, seeing as (since it
is so much easier to obtain a clay seal than a golden one), he really has no
excuse for not having obeyed his instructions.
(a) In another Beraisa, Rebbi Meir obligates the reciting of a hundred
B'rachos daily. And he derives this from the Pasuk "ve'Atah Yisrael, Mah
Hashem Elokecha Sho'el me'Imach" - since the word "Mah" can also be read as
'Me'ah' (meaning a hundred [see also Tosfos DH 'Sho'el').
(b) Rav Chiya b'rei de'Rav Ivya suggests that one supplements the missing
B'rachos (caused by the shorter Amidah) - by smelling spices and eating
sweets during the course of the day.
(c) Rebbi Meir adds three B'rachos to the Seider ha'Yom. Two of them are
'she'As'ani Yisrael' and 'she'Lo As'ani Ishah'. The third is - 'she'Lo
As'ani Bur' (an inferior type of Am-ha'Aretz).
(a) When Rav Acha bar Ya'akov heard his son recite the last B'rachah, he
objected - on the grounds that this is nothing to thank Hashem for (seeing
as it lies in one's own hands whether to become one or not). Alternatively,
unlike a Nochri and a woman) a Bur is Chayav all the Mitzvos, just like a
Talmid-Chacham in which case it has no place in a list together with them).
(b) He therefore replaced it with - 'she'Lo As'ani Aved'.
(c) The problem with that is - that it resembles the B'rachah 'she'Lo As'ani
Ishah' (seeing as a woman is a Shifchah to her husband just like an Eved is
to his master).
(d) We answer this with 'Zil T'fei', meaning that the Avdus of an Eved is
more degrading than that of a woman. Alternatively - it should be read 'Zil
Tafi', which will mean - 'Go and add it (anyway)' in order to help
complement the hundred B'rachos.