BACKGROUND ON THE DAILY DAF
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Previous daf Nazir 4
1) [line 11] MASHKIN (HA'MISHTAKRIN) [HA'MESHAKRIN] - intoxicating beverages
2) [line 12] DEVEILAH KE'ILIS - preserved figs from Ke'ilah (which are
3) [line 14] ISUR CHAL AL ISUR
(a) An object that is already prohibited by one Isur Torah cannot become
prohibited by a second one (Ein Isur Chal Al Isur). However, there are a
number of possible exceptions to this principle (when we rule Isur Chal Al
Isur) that are debated by the Tana'im (Chulin 101a):
1. Isur b'Vas Achas - Two Isurim may take effect at the same instant to
prohibit the same object.
(b) According to Rebbi Shimon, an object that is already prohibited can
*never* become prohibited by another Isur, even if the second Isur is Kolel,
Mosif or Chamur.
2. Isur Kollel - The second Isur may take effect if it includes objects that
the first Isur did not (e.g. Yom ha'Kipurim prohibits not only the eating of
Neveilos, but Kosher foods as well).
3. Isur Mosif - The second Isur may take effect if it adds a new dimension of
Isur to the first (e.g. it prohibits the object to people who were not
included in the first Isur, or it makes the object Asur b'Hana'ah and not
just Asur to be eaten).
4. Isur Chamur (according to Rebbi Yehudah) - A more stringent Isur can take
effect on an object that is already prohibited by a less stringent Isur (e.g.
the prohibition of Gid ha'Nasheh is more stringent than the prohibition of
non-Kosher animals, since it applied to Benei Yakov when they were still
permitted to eat non-Kosher animals).
4) [line 23] NEZIR SHIMSHON
A Nezir Shimshon is a Nazir until the end of his life (see next entry),
except that he may come in contact with a corpse (and does not have to bring
a Korban for doing so). He is never allowed to cut his hair or drink wine.
5) [line 29] NEZIR OLAM
(a) If someone says "I am a Nazir forever" or "I am a Nazir all the days of
my life", he becomes a Nezir Olam and is a Nazir until the end of his life.
Like a normal Nazir, he is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by
touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of
(b) A Nezir Olam differs from a normal Nazir in that he may cut off some of
his hair at the end of every twelve months when his hair becomes heavy, but
he may not shave it off completely. On the day that he cuts his hair, he
brings the three Korbanos that a normal Nazir brings at the completion of the
Nezirus period, namely a Chatas, an Olah and a Shelamim (see Background to
Nazir 2:1a:c). If he becomes Tamei, he brings a Korban Tum'ah, shaves his
hair and starts his Nezirus anew (just like any Nazir who becomes Tamei --
see Background to Nazir 2:1a:b and RAMBAM Nezirus 3:12)
6) [line 30] HICHBID SA'ARO, MEIKEL B'SA'AR - if his hair became heavy (after
twelve months), he can cut off some of it (lit. lighten it), with a razor
7) [line 30] SHALOSH BEHEMOS - the same Chatas, Olah, and Shelamim brought by
a normal Nazir when he completes his Nezirus
8) [line 13] BECHOR
(a) The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or
sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a
Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim
15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b) If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban
during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Yevamos
7:8 and 100:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in
Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by
Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.
(c) If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its
first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be
slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell
it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or
weighed in the usual manner.
(d) Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to
shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on
its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a
Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.
(e) Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor
until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no
Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be
bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393,
9) [line 15] DAVAR HA'NIDAR
(a) A Neder can be made by "connecting" an object that is permitted to
another object which is prohibited, such as a Korban. (Some Rishonim refer to
this as "a Neder performed through Hatpasah." Some Rishonim maintain that
this is an integral part of the expression of a Neder without which the Neder
is not binding, see Insights to Nedarim 2:2)..
(b) The Gemara (Nedarim 12a) explains that when making a Neder, one may only
connect an object to a "Davar ha'Nadur" (= ha'Nidar), i.e. another object
which has been prohibited either through a Neder or by becoming Hekdesh
(consecrated). If one attempts to make a Neder by connecting an object to a
"Davar ha'Asur," the Neder is not binding (Nedarim 14a). "Davar ha'Asur" in
this context refers to an object which is not prohibited because of an Isur
that a *person* placed upon it, but because of an Isur Torah that applied to
it naturally (e.g. meat that was cooked with milk, or a non-kosher animal).
10) [line 20] CHATAS
If a person commits a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he would be
Chayav Kares if he would have committed it b'Mezid (intentionally), he must
bring a Korban Chatas. He brings a female goat or female sheep as his Korban
11) [line 20] ASHAM
[I] ASHAM VADAI
The Torah specifies five cases where the Korban Asham Vadai is brought. The
animal offered is usually a ram that costs at least two Sela'im. The first
three involve transgressions:
1. ASHAM ME'ILOS: a person who has benefit from Hekdesh b'Shogeg must bring a
Korban Asham, besides paying the amount he benefited plus a fine of Chomesh
[II] ASHAM TALUY
2. ASHAM GEZEILOS: a person who steals money from a fellow Jew, swears in
Beis Din that he holds no such money and later admits his sin, must return
what he stole, pay a fine of Chomesh, and bring a Korban Asham to receive
atonement (Vayikra 5:20-26).
3. ASHAM SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH: a person who has relations with a Shifchah
Charufah (e.g. a slave who was owned by two partners, and freed by one of
them, who is betrothed to a Jewish slave) must bring a Korban Asham, whether
he did the sin b'Mezid or b'Shogeg (Vayikra 19:20-22).
4. ASHAM NAZIR: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a
Nazir who becomes Tamei during his period of Nezirus (Bamidbar 6:12).
5. ASHAM METZORA: this Korban (a sheep within its first year) is brought by a
Metzora upon the completion of his Taharah process (Vayikra 14:12).
If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which
one must bring a Korban Chatas, he temporarily brings a Korban Asham Taluy,
which is a ram worth two Sela'im. If he later discovers that he did indeed
sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary
atonement during the period of doubt.
12) [line 22] MATPISAN B'NEDER - he causes them to become a Chatas or an
Asham when he is obligated to bring a Chatas or an Asham, and he makes a
Neder stating that this animal should be his Korban
13) [line 32] TOV RO'I - with a handsome appearance
14) [line 33] U'KEVUTZOSAV SEDUROS LO TALTALIM - and his curly hair was
arranged in locks
15) [line 36] BAVU'AH - reflection
16) [line 36] PACHAZ YITZRI ALAI - my Evil Inclination rose within me (in
pride of my good looks)
17) [line 37] L'TORDENI MIN HA'OLAM - to drive me out of the World [to Come]
18) [line 39] RIMAH V'SOLE'AH - [food for] worms
19) [line 39] HA'AVODAH - I swear (by the service of the Beis ha'Mikdash)
20) [line 42] "...ISH...KI YAFLI LINDOR NEDER NAZIR L'HAZIR LA'HASH-M." -
"[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When either man [or
woman] shall separate themselves to vow a vow of Nezirus, to separate
themselves for HaSh-m.'" (Bamidbar 6:2)
21) [line 47] GERUYEI GARU VEHU - he threw it at them from a distance
(TOSFOS); alt. Girsa: GORDUYEI GARDI VEHON - he split their heads open with
the end of the jawbone (and retracted it before coming into contact with
their dead bodies) (ARUCH, MEFARESH, RADAK to Shoftim 14:19)
22) [line 49] CHALITZOSAM - their clothes, weapons, etc.
23) [line 49] ASHLECHINUN - he took of their clothes
24) [last line] "...(VAYEHI) [V'HAYAH] MIKETZ YAMIM L'YAMIM ASHER YEGALE'ACH
KI CHAVED ALAV V'GILCHO..." - "[And when he shaved his head,] for it was at
every year's end [that he shaved it; because the hair was heavy on him,
therefore he shaved it; he weighed the hair of his head at two hundred
shekels according to the king's weight.]" (Shmuel II 14:26)