ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Nedarim 53
(a) According to the Tana Kama, what date-honey and vinegar from Sitvani'os
have in common is - the fact that, if someone declared a Neder on the fruit,
they are not included.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira says - that they are.
(c) The Mishnah concludes, 'va'Chachamim Matirim', which appears to be a
repetition of the Tana Kama's opinion. In fact, this is the opinion of Rebbi
Shimon ben Elazar, who maintains - that in the case of something which is
not eaten, though its extract, is (such as Sitvani'os and the vinegar that
is extracted from them), someone who declares a Neder on the fruit has in
mind only the extract but not the fruit itself; whereas when both are eaten
(such as dates and date-honey), he has in mind both (the fruit and its
extract), irrespective of whether he declared a Neder on the fruit or on its
1. ... The Tana Kama of our Mishnah argues with him in two points because -
according to him, when both the fruit and its extract are eaten, he permits
the latter, and the same applies when the fruit is not eaten, but its
2. ... Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira agrees with Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar when
both the fruit and its extract are eaten, but disagrees when the fruit is
not eaten - because unlike Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar, he forbids the fruit
(a) What cider, sunflower-oil and vinegar from Sitvani'os have in common
is - that they are all not included in the fruit from which they are
extracted, as far as Nedarim is concerned,
(b) K'risin and Kaplutos (different species of leek) are different species
as regards Nedarim - and the same applies to Yerakos (vegetables that grow
in a garden) and Yarkos ha'Sadeh.
(c) The reason for all of these is - because any species which requires a
descriptive title to define it, is not considered the same species as the
'father species' which does not.
(d) A Neder on oil (S'tam) in Eretz Yisrael includes olive-oil but not
sunflower-oil. The equivalent Din in Bavel - is exactly the opposite.
(a) In a place where both olive-oil and sunflower-oil are used, a Neder on
oil will incorporate both - even if they tend to use more of the one than of
the other. As long as the other kind is used too, it will be incorporated in
In spite of the fact that 'vegetables' do not incorporate 'field-
vegetables' (because they have an accompanying name), a Neder forbidding
wine will not preclude boiled wine - because rgular wine and boiled wine are
one and the same species, whereas 'vegetables' and 'field- vegetables' are
(b) In fact, we are uncertain whether the Noder had in mind the minority
species or not - so we follow the principle, 'Safek Isura le'Chumra'.
(c) We learned in our Mishnah that a Neder forbidding vegetables includes
garden vegetables, but not those that grow in the fields. In the
Shmitah-year the opposite is true - because it is obvious that, in the
Shmitah-year, the Noder had in mind only vegetables that are not cultivated.
(d) According to Rebbi Avahu Amar Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel, this is not
always the case. Both in fact, are forbidden - there where cultivated
vegetables are imported from other countries.
(a) We learned earlier that, according to Rebbi Chanina ben Gamliel, there
where it is customary to bring vegetables from Chutz la'Aretz to Eretz
Yisrael, garden vegetables too, are forbidden in the Sh'mitah. The Tana Kama
in a Beraisa - forbids the import of vegetables from Chutz la'Aretz to Eretz
(b) ... because - they might come with some earth still attached, and Chazal
decreed Tum'ah on the earth of Chutz la'Aretz.
(a) According to the Tana Kama, what Ispargus (a kind of cabbage - see
Hagahos ha'Gra), a Mikpah (a bean-stew to which garlic is added) and garlic
have in common - is that they are all considered to be of the same species
as what they are similar to (cabbage, beans and a bean-stew respectively),
but not vice-versa.
(b) Rebbi Yossi disagrees in the last two cases. He says that even someone
who made a Neder forbidding beans is permitted to eat a bean-stew, and
someone who made a Neder forbidding a bean-stew, is permitted to eat
garlic - because in his town, both pairs had different names and were
considered to be two independent commodities.
(c) The Tana Kama considers 'Ashishim' to be a kind of lentil, but not
vice-versa - Rebbi Yossi considers them to be two independent commodities.
(a) If someone says ...
***** Hadran Alach ha'Noder min ha'Mevushal *****
1. ... 'Chitah Chitin she'Eini To'em' - he is forbidden to eat both
wheat-bread and wheat-flour.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah permits someone who declares 'Konem ... Chitah she'Eini
To'em' to chew wheat-kernels, but not to eat bread - because Chitah implies
one individual kernel, incorporating bread, which comprises one entity;
whereas people do not tend to chew only one kernel of wheat.
(c) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel agrees with Rebbi Yehudah. In a case where the
Noder said 'Konem *Chitin* she'Eini To'em' - he permits bread but forbids
chewing wheat kernels (using the reverse logic that we applied earlier).
2. ... 'G'ris G'risin she'Eini To'em' - he is forbidden to eat both raw and
(d) In a case when someone says ...
1. ... 'G'ris she'Eini To'em' - Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says that the Noder
is forbidden to cook beans, but permitted to chew them raw.
2. ... 'G'risin she'Eini To'em' - he is forbidden to chew them, but
permitted to cook them.
3. ... 'G'ris G'risin she'Eini To'em' - both are forbidden.