ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafNidah 61
(a) If the blood is found under the woman in the middle, then all three
women are Temei'os; whereas if it is found under either the inner or the
outer woman, then she and the woman next to her are Temei'os, but not the
woman who is furthest away from her.
(b) The previous Mishnah, which declares all three women Temei'os in all
cases, speaks when the women are huddled together, whilst this Mishnah
speaks when they are slightly apart.
(a) The innermost woman is Tehorah - when the blood is found under the
outer one - only when they got into bed from the foot of the bed, in which
case, the blood cannot possibly have come from the woman who is on the
inside (since at no time, did she not pass by the spot where the blood was
found); but if they all climbed into bed from the outside of the bed, in
such a way that they all passed over the spot where the blood was later
discovered, then they are all Temei'os, even the innermost woman, too.
(b) If one or two of the women examined themselves and found that they were
Tehoros, then the remaining women or woman are Tehoros
(a) If all three women examined themselves , and found that they are
Tehoros, then they are all three Temei'os. Rebbi Meir compares this to a
piece of corpse that was lost underneath one of three piles of stones. If,
after searching under all three piles, the Tum'ah is not found, then all
three piles are considered Tamei.
(b) The Rabbanan agree with Rebbi Meir in *our* case, and declare all three
women Temei'os, but they do not agree with him by the piles of stones.
There, they maintain, one only needs to search up to the rock, or to virgin
soil (where it is obvious that nobody has been buried there), no further -
and the piles are Tahor. Why the difference?
Because in the case of the piece of corpse, it is feasible that a raven
carried it away, but in the case of the three women, where did the blood
(c) The Rabbanan reject Rebbi Meir's proof from the tree with the Chezkas
Tum'ah, and Rebbi Yossi's proof from the cave of trenches (where the Tum'ah
was later revealed), because *they* are speaking in a case when a thorough
search was made and nothing was found, whereas in those two cases, it would
appear that the searchers did not search properly.
(d) Rebbi Yehoshua soaked sheets in water, which he then spread out on the
ground which they were examining; the Tahor soil, which was still virgin
soil, did not absorb the water, and remained dry. But the Tamei soil, which
was soft, became saturated.
Upon examination, they discovered a pit full of bones.
(a) The bones that they discovered were those of the many people whom Rebbi
Yishmael ben Nesanyah murdered together with Gedalyah ben Achikam.
(b) Gedalyah was made to share the blame for his own murder, and the murder
of all those who were killed with him, because he should have taken heed,
when Yochanan ben Keire'ach warned him of the plot to kill him.
(c) Rebbi Tarfon declined to protect the Benei Gelila who came to him for
protection from those who were chasing them - for ostensibly having
murdered someone, on the grounds that, even though it was forbidden to
accept Lashon ha'Ra, one was nevertheless obligated to suspect that it was
true (in order to save others from harm (the very sin of which Gedalyah was
guilty). So he declined to help them, in case the Lashon ha'Ra was true.
Nor did he want to divulge their whereabouts, in case it was false. So he
advised them to save themselves.
(a) Sichon and Og were brothers, sons of Achyah, the son of Shamchaza'i
(one of the angels whom Hashem sent down to earth, when they vetoed the
creation of man - to see whether *they* would fare any better).
Subsequently, they turned out to be more wicked than the man whose creation
they had vetoed (on the grounds that he would be wicked).
(b) Moshe Rabeinu was not afraid of Og's strength. What he *was* afraid of,
were the merits that he had earned, for - albeit with the wrong motivation
- informing Avraham of his nephew Lot's capture, making him indirectly
responsible for his recapture.
(a) According to the Tana Kama, if a bloodstain got lost in a garment, one
washes it with the seven special 'spices' (to be listed later in the
Mishnah), thereby negating it.
(b) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar holds that one examines each 'Shechunah' (area
of three finger-breadths) individually - should one fail to find any blood,
the garment is Tahor (See Tosfos, d.h. 'Bodko').
(c) If Shichvas Zera got lost on a garment, then it depends on the age of
the garment: If the garment is new, then he runs a needle backwards and
forwards along it. Any Zera still on the garment will get caught in the
needle (as the Zera is hard - as opposed to the rest of the garment, which
Whereas if it is an old garment, which has worn out and become thin with
wear and tear, then he can just hold it up to the sun, and see where the
Zera blocks the transparency.
(a) Selling to a non-Jew, a garment in which a thread of Kil'ayim got lost,
is prohibited, because we contend with the possibility that the non-Jew
will re-sell it to a Jew.
(b) It is forbidden to cover oneself with Kil'ayim in any way, and that
includes using it as a saddle.
(c) One is permitted to use it as shrouds for a dead person.
(d) Some opinions forbid one to use Kil'ayim as shrouds, because, when the
dead arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim, they will arise in the clothes in which
they were buried.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan learns from "ba'Meisim Chofshi" that, once a person
dies, he is Patur from fulfilling the Mitzvos (even vis-a-vis Techi'as
ha'Meisim, i.e. he need not concern himself with what will happen then).
'Shu'a ' means that the wool and the linen are prepared and combed
together; 'Tavuy' means that they are spun together, and 'Nuz' that they
are woven together. If any of the three is missing, the garment is not
(b) Linen (in those days) did not accept dye. Consequently, to check for
the lost linen thread, he would dye the garment; if the entire garment was
properly dyed, then he would know that it must have been removed.
(c) The proof for this leniency is from the Rabbanan, who rule that, if one
searched a pile of stones which was known to contain Tum'ah, but failed to
find the Tum'ah, one may assume that a bird removed it (as we explained
above in 3b).
(d) If someone added a linen thread to a woolen garment (or vice-versa),
and then is unsure whether he removed it or not, the garment is permitted.
Why is that?
Because linen that was not combed and spun together with the wool, before
being woven, is not forbidden by the Torah, only mi'de'Rabbanan, and the
Rabbanan declared such a garment to be permitted.
(a) According to Rebbi Nasan bar Yosef, the Chachamim did not decree the
Din of bloodstains on a colored garment, because the stains do not show up
so well on them.
(b) Chazal issued a decree, at the time when Vespasian attacked Yisrael,
forbidding Chasanim to wear crowns, and banning a type of bell-like
instrument, which they used to play at weddings.
(c) They also wanted to issue a decree on bloodstains found on colored
garments, but they decided against it (for the reason that we cited in