Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
1) If a woman gives birth to a 'Guf Atum', she is not Temei'ah Leidah.
(a) How does Rebbi describe a Guf Atum?Rebbi Zakai explains that it is missing until above the legs; Rebbi Yanai that it is up to and including the genitals, and Rebbi Yochanan until the navel.
(b) What are their respective reasons?2)
(a) What does Rav Papa mean when he says that from the top and downwards, if even the smallest amount is missing, the mother is not Temei'ah Leidah?A woman is not Temei'ah Leidah if she miscarries an 'Apaksa de'Dikla'.
(b) What is an 'Apaksa de'Dikla'?3) If a woman miscarries a baby whose face is slightly squashed (Panav Musmasin), Resh Lakish holds that the mother is not Temei'ah Leidah.
(a) What does Rebbi Yochanan hold, and what does he ask on Resh Lakish from the Beraisa of 'ha'Mapeles Yad Chatuchah ... Imo Temei'ah Leidah, ve'Ein Chosheshin Shema mi'Guf Atum Hu Ba'.According to Rav Papi, if the face is only slightly squashed, Resh Lakish agrees that she is Temei'ah Leidah.
(b) How does he quote the Machlokes between Rebbi Yochanan and Resh Lakish?4) If an animal miscarries a baby with two backs and two spinal cords, according to Rav, it is a Tereifah, and in the case of a woman, she is not Temei'ah Leidah.
(a) Why?5) After informing us that a fourth-month baby by a small animal and an eighth-month baby by a large one is forbidden (like a Neveilah), the Beraisa adds 'Yatza Mi she'Yesh Lo Shenei Gabin u'Shenei Shedra'os'.
(a) How does Rav learn the last phrase, and why will that present a Kashya on Shmuel?
(a) What does the Beraisa, quoted by the Beraisa expert learn from the Pasuk "Ishah Ki Sazriy'a, ve'Yalda Zachar" ... "u'va'Yom ha'Shemini Yimol Besar Orlaso"?7) The Gemara asks whether large animals can give birth to live seven-month babies (like a woman), or whether any animal of the larger species that is born in less that nine months is considered a miscarriage.
(a) Why is there no proof from the Beraisa, which (after writing that a fourth month baby - by a small species, and an eighth month baby - by a large species, is forbidden, goes on to write that less than that, is forbidden?8)
(a) What is a Demus Lilis, and will the mother of such a miscarriage be Temei'ah Leidah?Rebbi Chanina, Rebbi Yehoshua's nephew, ruled that the miscarriage of a form that resembles a snake is Metamei be'Lei'dah.
(b) What was Rabban Gamliel's reaction when he heard of this ruling?9)
(a) What is the technical difference between a Shefir Merukam and a Shefir she'Eino Merukam, and what is the Halachic difference between them?If the Shefir is full of colored liquid, we do not suspect that perhaps there was a baby but it melted.
Abaye explains that this is because she would need to drink huge quantities of wine for the entire baby to have melted.
(c) Which other two answers does the Gemara give?10)
(a) How was Aba Shaul - who was an undertaker - able to gauge a person's drinking habits by the appearance of his bones?