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Previous dafPesachim 43
1) [line 1] SHE'HIGI'U L'FIRKAN V'LO HIGI'U - (a) they have at least two
pubic hairs but are not yet twelve years old (and they want to remove their
hairs) (RASHI); (b) they are of age to be married but have not yet found a
husband (and they want to beautify themselves) (TOSFOS Shabbos 80b DH
she'Higi'u); (c) they are twelve years old but do not yet have signs of
maturity (and they want to cause them to appear - the opposite of Rashi)
(RABEINU CHANANEL ibid.)
2) [line 2] TOFLOS OSAN - paste on them (on their skin)
3) [line 2] SID - lime (plaster)
4) [line 3] SOLES - fine flour
5) [line 4] SHEMEN HA'MOR - myrrh oil
6) [line 5] SATCHAS - oil prepared with spices (myrrh oil)
7) [line 7] ANPIKNIN - a type of oil, which is mentioned regarding Menachos.
The Mishnah (Menachos 85b) states that l'Chatchilah it may not be used in
8) [line 8] MESHIR ES HA'SEI'AR - it makes hair fall out
9) [line 9] ME'ADEN ES HA'BASAR - rejuvenates the flesh
10) [line 13] BAR MA'ARAVA - a person from Eretz Yisrael
11) [line 15] MASKILTA - a relish, dip
12) [line 17] NUKSHEH - Chametz that is spoiled and is not fit for human
consumption (barely edible - Magen Avraham, Mishnah Berurah 442:2)
13) [line 19] SI'UR
(a) As dough becomes Chametz it goes through a number of stages. 1. First it
becomes pale like the appearance of a man whose hair stands on end out of
fright. 2. It then starts to form thin cracks on its surface, which look
like locusts' antennae (Karnei Chagavim). 3. Next the cracks begin to
multiply and run into each other.
(b) The Tana'im argue as to which stage is called "Si'ur," which
necessitates that the dough be burned and is Asur b'Hana'ah and which stage
is considered "Siduk," which is not only Asur b'Hana'ah but also punishable
with Kares if eaten. Si'ur is considered inedible (Chametz Nuksheh), since
the dough has not completed its fermentation, and therefore one who eats it
is not punished with Kares.
(c) Rebbi Meir calls stage 1. Si'ur and maintains that it is already
leavened but since at this point it is not fit to be eaten, one receives
lashes for eating it, instead of Kares. He calls stage 2. Siduk, which *is*
punishable by Kares.
Rebbi Yehudah maintains that stage 1. is still Matzah mid'Oraisa, and is
prohibited only mid'Rabanan. He calls stage 2. Si'ur and maintains that it
must be destroyed before Pesach but if one eats it he is exempt from Kares.
Stage (3) is Siduk, which is punishable by Kares.
14) [line 22] SI'UR YISAREF, D'REBBI MEIR L'REBBI MEIR, D'REBBI YEHUDAH
L'REBBI YEHUDAH - when the Beraisa states "Si'ur Yisaref", it means that the
stage called Si'ur by Rebbi Meir (stage "1") must be burned according to
Rebbi Meir and the stage called Si'ur by Rebbi Yehudah (stage "2") must be
burned according to Rebbi Yehudah
15) [line 18] CHELEV
(a) Chelev refers to the fat of an animal that is offered on the Mizbe'ach.
It consists of the layer of fat covering the stomachs, all the other fat
attached to the stomachs, and the fat on the kidneys along the flanks
(b) The Chelev of a Kosher Behemah is forbidden to eat, but may be used for
any other purpose. The Chelev of a Chayah, however, may even be eaten.
"Shuman" refers to all the other fat of an animal that is permitted.
(c) If a person eats Chelev b'Mezid, he is Chayav Kares; b'Shogeg he must
bring a Korban Chatas. If a person is in doubt whether the fat he ate was
Chelev or Shuman, he must bring a Korban Asham Taluy.
16) [line 29] BAL TAKTIRU
(a) It is prohibited by a Lav of the Torah to offer sourdough, or anything
that contains sourdough, on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 2:11).
(b) A person who offers sourdough on the Mizbe'ach receives Malkos, however,
the Amora'im argue as to the extent of the prohibition. According to Abaye,
even offering the most miniscule amount of sourdough incurs Malkos.
According to Rava, since "Ein Haktarah b'Pachos mik'Zayis," ("The burning of
items on the Mizbe'ach is not considered a [valid] burning if they measure
less than a k'Zayis") the sourdough must be the size of a k'Zayis in order
for the transgressor to receive Malkos.
17) [line 33] EIN HETER MITZTAREF L'ISUR (Permitted food items do not
combine with prohibited food items)
(a) Food items that are prohibited to be eaten, such as Chelev, Nosar,
Pigul, etc., have a minimal Shi'ur (amount) that the Torah specifies for
which a person who eats them is liable to punishment. Even though an amount
less than this is also prohibited to be eaten ("Chatzi Shi'ur Asur Min
ha'Torah" - Yoma 74a), it incurs no punishment by Beis Din. A person who
eats a Shi'ur incurs Malkos. A person who eats less does not, since "Ein
[Ma'aseh] Achilah Pachos mik'Zayis" ("Eating is defined as an act of eating
at least a k'Zayis").
(b) There are Isurim for which the Torah specifies that a person who eats
even the most miniscule amount receives Malkos, on condition that he eats it
with other food items (even items that are permissible) that add up to the
Shi'ur of a k'Zayis. Since he has done an action of eating (by eating a
k'Zayis) and the Isur was included in what he ate, he receives Malkos. This
Halachah is stated in the Torah with regard to food items that absorbed the
taste of Kodshim that became Asurim (Pesachim 45a). According to Rebbi Akiva
(ibid. 44b), the Torah also reveals this Halachah in the case of a Nazir who
soaks his bread in wine and eats a k'Zayis of the bread and wine, for which
he receives Malkos. (The Tana'im argue as to whether this rule applies to
other Isurim as well.)
(c) 1. Heter Mitztaref l'Isur is not applied when the items of Isur are
*Batel* (nullified) in the Heter. It can only be applied when the Isur is
not Batel (e.g. when it is noticeable that the Isur lends its taste to the
Heter). 2. The Rishonim argue as to whether this Din applies *only* to an
item of Isur that is Balu'a (absorbed) in Heter (TOSFOS Pesachim 43b DH
k'Man and most RISHONIM) or also to an item of Isur that stands alone and is
not Balu'a in the Heter at all (RASHI Pesachim 43b DH Ein). 3. The Rishonim
also argue about a case where a Chatzi Zayis of Isur is Balu'a in a Chatzi
Zayis of Heter, yielding a full k'Zayis. According to the Tana who does
*not* rule that Heter combines with Isur, will the person who eats this
mixture be Chayav or not? According to RASHI, since the Isur lends its taste
to the Heter, a person who eats it is Chayav as if all of the k'Zayis was
Isur. According to TOSFOS and most of the RISHONIM, this person is exempt
from Malkos since there is only a Chatzi Zayis of Isur -- see Insights.
18) [line 34] ISUREI NAZIR
If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period,
he becomes a Nazir for a period of thirty days. During this period, he is
not allowed to: (1) cut his hair; (2) become Tamei by touching or being in
the same room as a corpse; or (3) consume any products of the grapevine.
19) [line 35] "MISHRAS" - the Pasuk reads, "v'Chol Mishras Anavim Lo
Yishteh." ("and he may not drink any liquid in which grapes were soaked [or
steeped]." (Bamidbar 6:3)
*20*) [last line] K'MAN K'REBBI ELIEZER - (a) TOSFOS explains that we have a
valid source for ruling Heter Mitztaref l'Isur by Se'or only according to
Rebbi Eliezer, who makes separate derivations from both the words "*Kol*"
and "*Ki* Kol" (as the Gemara seemed to conclude from the previously quoted
Beraisa). The first derivation will be that when Se'or is mixed with a
normal Minchah, one is still Chayav; the second is that Heter Mitztaref
l'Isur. The Rabanan only derive a single teaching from "*Ki* Kol" (they do
not derive anything from "Kol"), and therefore they have no source to prove
Heter Mitztaref l'Isur by Se'or. NACHALAS DAVID understands that this is the
intention of Rashi here as well. (b) Alternatively, RASHI may have
understood that our Gemara is following the *original* conclusion of the
earlier Sugya. Rebbi Eliezer derives a law only from the word "Kol" (and not
from the word "Ki"), while the Rabanan derive a law only from the word "Ki"
(and not from the word "Kol"). In the case of Se'or, Heter Mitztaref l'Isur
can *only* be learned from the word "Kol," and therefore only Rebbi Eliezer
will say Heter Mitztaref l'Isur.