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Previous dafPesachim 57
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg
and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is
devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara,
Rashi or Tosfos.)
 Gemara [line 31]:
The words "Yishmael Ben Pi'achi"
should be "Yishmael Ben Pi'abi" (as is found in the manuscript of the Shitah Mekubetzes printed by Rav Ilan, and in Rabeinu Chananel, Pesachim 57a. As the Mishnah tells us (Sotah 49a) "When Rebbi Yishmael Ben Pi'abi passed away, the splendor of the priesthood ceased to exist."
1) [line 4] BEN BOHAYAN - the son of Bohayan
2) [line 12] LISHKAS BEIS HA'PARVAH - the room where hides of the offerings were salted to preserve them. The Rishonim suggest various reasons for its name. According to the RASH (Midos 5:3), the word "Parvah" is related to "Parim," bulls, the hides of which were salted there. Alternatively, a Mikvah on this room's roof was used by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim (Yoma 34b). A sorceror named Parvah designed this room with an ingenious system for bringing water to its roof (ibid., as explained by TIFERES YISRAEL, based on Yoma 35a). Alternatively, a non-Jewish sorceror named Parvah built a tunnel from Yerushalayim which emerged within the walls of this Lishkah, for the purpose of seeing the Kohen Gadol perform the Avodah on Yom Kipur. He was caught there and executed on the spot, and they memorialized the event through the name of the Lishkah. (RAMBAM ibid. and RABEINU CHANANEL, cited by ROSH ibid.)
3) [line 13] ANSHEI BEIS AV
(a) The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts according to their families (Mishmaros), each of which served in the Mikdash for two weeks out of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b) Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros were divided into seven, and not six, groups, and only one group served on Shabbos (RASHI Ta'anis 26a -- for more on this, see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).
(c) On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos) all of the Mishmaros Kehunah came to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar were permitted to do the Avodah of the Regel.
4) [line 14] BI'ZERO'A - by force
5) [line 23] DELEM - taint, defect
6) [line 28] BEIS BAISOS/BEIS CHANIN/BEIS KATROS/BEIS YISHMAEL BEN PI'ACHI - the households of high priests whose servants took what they wanted from the people
(a) Baisos was the father of Marta Bas Baisos, a wealthy Jewish noble woman who lived in Yerushalayim during the times of the Tana'im (see Yevamos 61a, Gitin 56a).
(b) Chanin and Katros are the names of priestly families. During the excavations of the Jewish Quarter, a house was discovered that was burned down during the Churban of Yerushalayim. A stone weight found inside bears the (almost complete) name of Katros. It is called "The Burnt House - Beit Katros," and can be visited today. Also found inside were a spear and the arm of a woman.
(c) Yishmael Ben Pi'achi - see Girsa section and Insights #2.
7) [line 28] ALASAN - their clubs
8) [line 29] LECHISHASAN - (lit. their whispers) (a) they would give evil counsel (RASHI); (b) they would slander people and turn them in to the government (ARCUH)
9) [line 30] KULMUSAN - their styluses or quills (with which they wrote evil reports about the people)
10) [line 31] EGROFAN - their fists
11) [line 32] GIZBARIN - treasurers
12) [line 32] AMARKALIN - the overseers of the treasurers
13) [line 32] CHOVTIN - strike, thrash
14) [line 33] 4 TZEVACHOS TZAVCHAH AZARAH - the Azarah cried out 4 cries
15) [line 33] BENEI ELI
(a) The two sons of Eli, Chofni and Pinchas, were two of the most extremely righteous people in the history of Benei Yisrael. When Avraham Avinu gave Avimelech, king of the Pelishtim, seven of his sheep without asking HaSh-m beforehand (Bereishis 21:30), as a punishment HaSh-m informed him that Avimelech's descendents would kill seven of his exemplary descendents. Chofni and Pinchas are two of the seven listed (Bereishis Rabah 54:4). Furthermore, their names were engraved on the throne of Shlomo ha'Melech, on two golden stalks that came forth from a golden bowl that contained the pure olive oil for the Menoros of the throne (TARGUM SHENI to Megilas Esther).
(b) Even though they did sin by a certain disgrace of the sacrifices, nevertheless, this was only measured according to their lofty status. Indeed, the Gemara (Shabbos 55b) states that anyone who claims that Benei Eli sinned with married women is mistaken. The verses that state this explicitly are part of their punishment since their actions delayed women from returning to their husbands. Had they sinned with married women, the verse (Shmuel I 14:3) would not mention that honorable Kohanim descended from them (Shabbos ibid.).
(c) Besides the scandalous report of the verses, Chofni and Pinchas were also punished with death at the hands of the Pelishtim. In addition, a curse was placed upon their descendents such that without special efforts of piety, all of their male descendents would die as young men (Rosh Hashanah 18a, based upon Shmuel I 2:33, 3:14).
16) [line 35] D'HAVAH KARICH YADEI B'SHIRA'EI - he would wrap his hand in silk
17) [line 41] MAI SALKA BEI? - what was his outcome?
18) [line 42] GADYA YA'I - (a) a goat *tastes* better than a lamb (RASHI); (b) a goat is more fit to be offered as a *Korban* than a lamb (Rabbeinu Gershom to Kerisus 28b)
19) [line 1] YEISAK LI'TMIDA - it should have been chosen to be offered as the Korban Tamid
20) [line 2] NIFSEKU L'YAMINEI - cut off his right hand
21a) [line 3] BERICH RACHMANA - Blessed is HaSh-m
b) [line 3] D'ASHKELEI L'YISACHAR ISH KEFAR BARKAI L'MITRAPSEI MINEI B'HAI ALMA - Who took away [the sin and the impending punishment] of Yisachar Ish Kefar Barkai [by making sure that he receive] his due in This World (and not in the World to Come)