THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
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Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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1) HALACHAH: SHINUY MAKOM
OPINIONS: The Gemara discusses whether a person is required to recite a new
Berachah when he began eating in one place and then moved to another place.
The subject is a matter of dispute among the Tana'im and Amora'im. According
to Rebbi Yehudah, one must recite a new Berachah in the second place. The
Rabanan, though, maintain that one only needs to recite a Berachah for foods
which do not normally require a Berachah Acharonah in the original place.
When one eats foods that do require a Berachah Acharonah in the original
place, one does *not* need to recite a new Berachah in the new place (the
reason is because when eating such foods, one's intention in eating them in
the new location is to add to the previous meal, making it a continuation of
his meal in the first location -- see Background to Daf 101). This is how
Rav Chisda rules. What is the Halachah?
2) FOOD ITEMS NEED A "BERACHAH ACHARONAH BI'MEKOMAN"
(a) The RASHBAM and the ROSH (10:6) rule like Rav Chisda, since the Gemara
itself states that a Beraisa supports his opinion. Furthermore, he is
following the opinion of the majority (the Rabanan).
The Rosh and Tosfos add that if a person does go from one place to another
in the midst of eating an item which does not require a Berachah Acharonah
in its place (and thus he needs to recite a Berachah Rishonah in the new
location), he does *not* need to recite a Berachah *Acharonah* for the food
he ate in the original place. The reason is because Shinuy Makom, changing
one's place, is considered only a "Hesech ha'Da'as" (an *interruption*),
which warrants a new Berachah Rishonah, but it is not considered an "Akirah"
(a *termination*) of his first meal. Eating the food in a new place is not
the beginning of a new meal; rather, it is a continuation of the original
meal, but with an interruption.
(b) The RIF, however, rules like Rav Sheshes, that one must always make a
new Berachah, because Rebbi Yehudah in the earlier Beraisa clearly supports
Rav Sheshes. Even though the Rabanan argue with Rebbi Yehudah, their opinion
is not taken into consideration because their opinion does not actually
appear anywhere explicitly (it is only inferred), and we do not rely on the
Gemara's assertion that there exists Rabanan who argue with Rebbi Yehudah.
This is also the ruling of the RAMBAM (Hilchos Berachos 4:4). The Rambam is
also stringent regarding a Berachah *Acharonah*. If a person goes to a new
place, not only does he need to recite a new Berachah Rishonah in the new
place, but he also needs to recite a Berachah Acharonah for what he ate in
the first location. The Rambam views a Shinuy Makom as an "Akirah," a total
termination of his first meal.
1. The SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 178:1) rules like the RAMBAM, who rules like Rav
Sheshes, and is stringent in both respects, requiring a Berachah Acharonah
for the food one ate in the original place, and a new Berachah Rishonah for
the food one wishes to eat in the new place, even for bread. The REMA,
however, rules leniently in both respects, like the ROSH.
The MISHNAH BERURAH (OC 178:28) adds a limitation of this Halachah in the
name of the MAGEN AVRAHAM: When we say that if one ate bread (an item which
requires a Berachah Acharonah in its original place) he does not need to
recite a new Berachah Rishonah, this is only when he ate at least a k'Zayis
of bread in the original place.
2. All agree, though, that l'Chatchilah, a person should not change his
location while eating, unless he needs to go in order to perform a Mitzvah
or unless he had in mind to change his place when he made his original
Berachah. According to the SHULCHAN ARUCH, having in mind to change one's
place enables one to go from one room to another room in one house.
According to the REMA (who rules like Rav Chisda and does not require a new
Berachah when eating bread), one may have in mind to go even from one house
to *another house* (MISHNAH BERURAH 178:33, 40).
RAV MOSHE FEINSTEIN (IGROS MOSHE OC II:57), who follows the lenient ruling
of the Rema, adds that even if one is eating fruit (or other items which
normally require a new Berachah if one changes places), he does not need to
recite a new Berachah in the new location if he *continues eating as he
goes* to the new place and does not stop for a period of "k'Dei Dibur."
3. It should be noted that when the REMA rules like Rav Chisda, that means
that b'Di'eved one does not need a new Berachah Rishonah in the new
location. What is the Halachah, though, if a person needs to leave his place
for the sake of a Mitzvah and he knows that he is going to return? Is it
preferable that he make a Berachah Acharonah before he leaves, and begin his
meal anew when he returns? Or should he leave without reciting a Berachah
Acharonah, and recite it only after he returns and finishes eating?
The BI'UR HALACHAH concludes that it is better not to recite a Berachah
Acharonah if one intends to return and eat more, in order to avoid making
unnecessary Berachos. Rather, one should leave without reciting a Berachah
Acharonah, unless there is a possibility that one will be away for a long
time (more than 72 minutes), after which one may not recite a Berachah
Acharonah. In such a case he should recite a Berachah Acharonah before he
leaves (Bi'ur Halachah, end of DH b'Lo Berachah).
OPINIONS: Rav Chisda says that if a person goes to a new location while
eating a food which requires a Berachah Acharonah in its place, one does not
need to recite a new Berachah Rishonah in the new location. Which items
require a Berachah Acharonah in the place where the food was eaten ("Te'unim
Berachah Achareihem bi'Mekoman")?
(This question is relevant in two important ways. First, for which foods
does a person need to recite a Berachah Acharonah in the same place where he
ate? Second, for which foods does a person need to recite a new Berachah
Rishonah if he changed places?)
(a) The RASHBAM writes that this phrase refers to all foods of the Shiv'as
ha'Minim. This is also the ruling of the RAMBAM (Hilchos Berachos 4:1).
HALACHAH: The SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 178:5) cites the opinion of the Rambam (a)
and the opinion of Tosfos and the Rosh (b). The REMA cites the Rashba's
opinion (c). The VILNA GA'ON rules like Tosfos, that bread and other foods
made of grain require a Berachah Acharonah in the original place.
(b) TOSFOS (101b) and the ROSH (10:6) write that this refers only to foods
made from grain.
(c) The RASHBA (Berachos 53b) rules that only *bread* is considered an item
which requires a Berachah Acharonah in its place.
The MISHNAH BERURAH (178:45), therefore, rules that a person should be
stringent and, l'Chatchilah, should recite a Berachah Acharonah in the
original place whenever he eats any of the Shiv'as ha'Minim. One should take
on the stringencies of the VILNA GA'ON and not leave his place where he
started eating foods of the Shiv'as ha'Minim that are not grain-based,
because he might be required to recite a new Berachah Rishonah if he goes to
a new place (since according to the Vilna Ga'on such foods are *not* items
which require a Berachah Acharonah in the original place).