ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Introduction to PesachimPesachim 2
PESACHIM 2 - has been sponsored through a generous gift from
Eli Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland, and family
(a) Chazal instituted the Mitzvah of Bedikas Chametz on the eve of the
fourteenth of Nisan - to prevent the transgression of 'Bal Yera'eh' and
'Bal Yimatzei' (according to Tosfos, it is because Chazal were afraid that
otherwise, one may forget and eat Chametz on Pesach).
(b) Any location where Chametz was not brought during the year does not
(c) Beis Hillel says that it is the two upper-outer rows that require
(d) A wine-cellar from which wine is taken in small quantities is a place
where Chametz is taken - because the Shamash sometimes carries a piece of
bread with him when he goes to fetch wine during the meal.
(a) Rav Yehudah explains 'Or le'Arba'ah-Asar' to mean 'the eve of the
(b) Rav Yehudah translates the Pasuk "ha'Boker Or" - as if it would
written 'ha'Boker He'ir', and the morning became light (as a verb rather
than as a noun). Note: According to Rav Yehudah (and this is the Gemara's
conclusion) Or can and does, mean *'light'*, but not 'the light of *day*'.
(c) One should not travel at night-time because of wild animals and
robbers (according to Tosfos DH 'Yikanes' it is because of demons. See
also Rashi, 8b DH 'Mahu Lemeisei').
(d) Rav Yehudah explains ....
1. ... the Pasuk "u'che'Or Boker Yizrach Shemesh" - 'and like the morning
lights up in this world, Hashem will make the sun shine for the Tzadikim
in the World to Come.
2. ... "Vayikra Elokim la'Or Yom" - 'Hashem called light and placed it in
charge of the day'.
3. ... and "ve'la'Choshech Kara Laylah" - 'and He called darkness and
placed it in charge of night'.
(a) If "la'Or" were to mean the gradually increasing light, then
"ve'la'Chochesh" (in "ve'la'Choshech Kara Laylah") would also have to mean
'and to the gradually increasing darkness He called night'. But that is
impossible, since Chazal have already taught us that it is not night-time
until it is completely dark i.e. when the stars come out?
(b) In fact, all the Heavenly bodies are obligated to praise Hashem,
whether they shine or not. The reason the Torah writes "Haleluhu Kol
Kochvei Or" - is to teach us that the light shed by the stars is also
called light (This is important in the context of someone who makes a
Neder not to derive benefit from light).
(c) We know that all the Heavenly bodies are obligated to praise Hashem
from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Haleluhu Kol Tzeva'kav".
(a) We initially explain the Pasuk "la'Or Yakum Rotzei'ach, Yiktal Ani
ve'Evyon, uva'Laylah Yehi ka'Ganav" to mean - that by the light of day,
the murderer attacks the poor and needy and kills them, and by night he
breaks into the houses like a thief.
(b) Rav Yehudah explain it to mean - that if it is clear to you like the
light, that the thief who is breaking into your house is prepared to kill,
then he is a murderer, and you are permitted to kill him to save yourself;
but should you harbor doubts like the night-time, then you must treat him
like a thief, and killing him is prohibited.
(c) One is forbidden to kill one's father, even if he breaks in like a
thief - because that is the case of doubt mentioned in the previous
(a) Rav Yehudah explains the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Yechshechu Kochvei Nishpo, *Yekav le'Or va'Ayin*" - (said by Iyov
in the form of a self-curse) to mean: 'May I hope for the light, but not
(b) Rebbi Yehudah says in a Mishnah later "Bodkin Or Arba'ah-Asar
u've'Arba'ah-Asar Shachris u've'Sha'as ha'Bi'ur" - clearly indicating that
'Or' means the eve of, and not the morning.
2. ... "Va'Omar Ach Choshech Yeshufeni ve'Laylah Or Ba'adeni" - (said by
David Hamelech, after he discovered that his sin with Bas- Sheva had been
forgiven) 'At first I thought that darkness would envelop me in the World
to Come (which is compared to the day); now even This World (which is
compared to night) has become light'.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov forbids one to do work on the fourteenth of
Nisan 'mi'Sha'as ha'Or'; Rebbi Yehudah says from sun-rise.
(b) Even if 'mi'Sha'as ha'Or' of Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov would mean from
dawn-break, there would be no problem (as to why he permits the night and
forbids the day) - since for that, we have a precedent, in the Dinim of
Ta'anis Tzibur, which only begins at dawn-break.
(c) According to Rebbi Shimon, a Ta'anis Tzibur begins from the time the
cock crows in the morning.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah answers that we have a precedent for part of the day
being permitted and part being forbidden - by Chametz, which is permitted
until mid-day and forbidden after that.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov counters - that one cannot bring Chametz
(d'Oraysa) as a precedent for the Rabbinical prohibition of not doing work
on Erev Pesach.
(c) The two hours which the Rabbanan added to the Torah's Shiur are also
no precedent for Melachah, which is purely de'Rabbanan, whereas the extra
two hours of Achilas Chametz are really an extension of the Torah's
prohibition (i.e. to safeguard it).
(a) They would only light the torches when the new moon was seen on the
thirtieth of the month (but not on the thirty-first).
(b) The torches would be lit on the following night, the thirty-first.
Consequently, whenever there were no torches, the people would know that
the previous month had been a full one.
(c) The Gemara proves from 'le'Or Iburo' - that 'Or' means 'the eve of'.
(d) There no disproof for Rav Yehudah from the Beraisa 'Hayah Omed Kol
ha'Laylah u'Makriv Al ha'Mizbei'ach *le'Orah* Ta'un Kidush' - because he
too, agrees, that *'Orah'* means 'day'; it is *'Or'* which means 'night'.