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*1*) [line 3] B'ECHAD BI'SHEVAT K'VEIS SHAMAI? - is the Tana then ruling that the *first* of Shevat is Rosh Hashanah, like Beis Shamai says?
2) [line 7] "LAVSHU CHARIM HA'TZON, VA'AMAKIM YA'ATFU VAR, YISRO'A'U AF YASHIRU" - "The meadows don sheep and the valleys cloak themselves with fodder, they shout joyfully; they even sing!" (Tehilim 65:14) - The Gemara offers two explanations to interpret the beginning of this verse. Rava concludes that the preferable interpretation is, "The stronger sheep get pregnant when the valleys cloak themselves with fodder (during the month of Adar)." (See the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 8a, for a third interpretation of this verse, brought in Background to Shekalim 8:4.)
3) [line 14] SHIBOLIM - stalks of grain
*6*) [line 43] RAV CHISDA KERA'EI ASA L'ASHMU'INAN? - Rav Chisda's statement was not made with regard to the Mishnah (because the differentiation that he makes is obvious from the Mishnah itself, and it was not necessary for him to repeat it). Rather, he was learning the verses of Nechemya (cited earlier on Daf 3b) which seemed to contradict each other, and he differentiated between Jewish and non-Jewish kings as a means of answering the verses (since the distinction is not obvious from the verses themselves).
7) [line 45] L'TEKUFAH - for the counting of the solstices and equinoxes
9) [line 13] L'MEIKAM MALKA AVRA'I - for the king (Benei Yisrael) to stand outside
10) [line 14] MEKAMEI D'LEIFUSH CAHRON AF - before the wrath [of the judge] will become great (after judging the "Tzibur," Umos ha'Olam)