POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 9
ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) ADDING FROM NON-HOLY PERIODS TO HOLY PERIODS
(a) Question: How do we know that we add time from non-holy
periods to holy periods?
(b) Answer: As taught by R. Akiva in a Beraisa:
1. (R. Akiva) The Torah teaches that one should
refrain from plowing and harvesting, even though
it had already stated that one may not sow in the
seventh year thereby including the plowing
immediately before the seventh year, and the
harvesting immediately thereafter.
(c) Question: How does R. Yishmael know that we add time
from non-holy periods to holy periods?
2. (R. Yishmael) The Torah is referring to Shabbos
and comparing harvesting to plowing (just as
plowing [which is always voluntary] is forbidden,
so too, only voluntary harvesting is forbidden,
thus excluding harvesting the Omer, which is a
(d) Answer: He learns it from Yom Kipur:
1. (Beraisa) The words "On the ninth" imply that the
fast begins on the day of the ninth while "In the
evening" implies that it should begin only on the
eve of the tenth.
(e) Question: How does R. Akiva interpret the words "You
should afflict yourselves on the ninth?"
2. The reconciliation is that one adds from the
daytime hours of the ninth to the fast (teaching
us that we add time from non-holy periods to holy
3. Question: How do we know that the end of Yom Kipur
is also extended?
4. Answer: The words "from evening to evening,"
include the following evening.
5. Question: How can we apply this to Shabbos?
6. Answer: The words "you should rest" refer to Yom
Kipur, but allude to Shabbos.
7. Question: How can we apply this to Yom Tov?
8. Answer: The term "Your rests" applies whenever
there is a Mitzvah to rest.
(f) Answer: He learns the ruling of Chiya b. Rav that
whoever eats and drinks on the ninth is rated as though
he has fasted on both the ninth and tenth.
2) THE CONDITIONS FOR YOVEL
(a) (R. Yehudah) "It is Yovel" teaches that we may not
perform agricultural tasks even if the procedures of
returning land to its original owners and of Shofar
were not performed, while, the prefix "It is" teaches
that it is not Yovel if the servants were not released.
3) THE NEW YEAR FOR ORLAH
(b) (R. Yosi) The prefix "It is" teaches that it is not
Yovel if the Shofar was not blown.
(c) Question: Why does R. Yosi see Shofar as the essential
criterion and the release of servants as an inessential
(d) Answer: It is possible that there would be no servants
to be released, but it is not possible that there would
be no Shofar to be blown.
(e) Alternate answer: Releasing servants is dependant upon
individuals, and we don't want Yovel to be contingent
on their acquiescence, while blowing the Shofar is
done by Beis Din.
1. Question: Why is an alternate answer necessary?
(f) Question: What is R. Yehudah's reasoning?
2. Answer: One might argue that it is impossible for
there not to be a single servant in the world
(g) Answer: R. Yehudah argues with R. Yosi who holds that a
Pasuk (such as "you shall call for Dror") is understood
to be referring to the immediately preceding clause,
and not to an earlier clause (such as that of blowing
1. Question: Why is it clear that "Dror" refers to
(h) (R. Chiya bar Aba citing R. Yochanan) What is the
reasoning of the Chachamim who hold that it is Yovel
only if all three procedures, (returning land to its
original owners, releasing servants, and blowing
Shofar) were performed?
2. Answer: As we have learned in a Beraisa that Dror
refers to freedom.
3. (R. Yehudah) The word "Dror" refers to a person
who can live ("Dar") wherever he wants and do his
business wherever he wants.
(i) They understand a Pasuk as referring to the
immediately preceding clause (of releasing slaves), the
earlier clause (of blowing Shofar), and the following
clause (of returning land to its original owners).
1. Question: Why do we need the inclusive word of
"Yovel" (implying that regardless of a reason to
think otherwise, it is Yovel anyway)?
2. Answer: To teach that it even applies in the
3. Question: So why does it say that Yovel is in "the
land" (of Israel)?
4. Answer: To teach that it only applies in the
Diaspora when it applies in Israel.
(a) Question: How do we know that the year for Orlah
begins on the first of Tishrei?
4) THE TOSEFTA OF CALCULATING ORLAH
(b) Answer: The Torah writes that fruit is permitted "in
the fourth year" and we learn (by way of Gezerah
Shavah) from the occurrence of the word "year" in the
Pasuk "from the beginning of the year" in reference to
1. Question: Why not learn from the occurrence of the
word "year" in the Pasuk "It is the first for you
for the months of the year" in reference to Nisan?
2. Answer: We should learn the occurrence of the word
"year" without any mention of months from the same
thing, rather than learn it from the occurrence of
the word in connection to the months.
(a) Whether planting, bending the runner of a plant into
the earth to take root, or grafting, before the
beginning of the Shemitah year -
(b) If at least thirty days remain until Rosh Hashanah,
they count as the first year for Orlah calculations,
and the plant may be grown through Shemitah.
(c) If less than thirty days remain until Rosh Hashanah,
they do not count as the first year for Orlah
calculations, and the plant may not be grown through
(d) Even where it was planted thirty days beforehand, fruit
that grew after Rosh Hashanah of the fourth year are
forbidden; only those that grow after the fifteenth of
Shevat will be Revai and can be eaten in Yerushalayim.