POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 17
ROSH HASHANAH 17 & 18 (8, 9 Av) - these Dafim have been dedicated by Rabbi
Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, to the memory of his father, Reb Yisrael
Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel (Yarhzeit: 10 Av).
1) THE BERAISA OF PEOPLES' JUDGMENTS (Cont.)
(a) Jews and non-Jews who have sinned with their bodies
descend to Gehinom for 12 months.
2) ANALYZING THE BERAISA
1. After 12 months their bodies are consumed, and
their souls are burned and scattered beneath the
feet of the righteous, as derived from a Pasuk.
(b) Heretics, Mosrim and Apikorsim, who have denied the
Torah and the resurrection, separated from the
community, spread fear, sinned and caused others to sin
(such as Yeravam and co.) descend to Gehinom forever.
1. Even when Gehinom is terminated, they are still not
2. They receive all this because they destroyed the
Zevul (the Beis ha'Mikdash).
3. Chanah said that Hashem will smash such people.
4. (R. Yitzchak bar Avin) Their faces are as black as
the bottom of a pot.
5. (Rava) These were elite of their town, and now they
are the citizens of Gehinom.
(a) Question: How can Beis Hillel say that intermediate
people have the scales tipped in their favor when Beis
Shamai cited a Pasuk that they descend to Gehinom for a
3) JUDGING AND BEING JUDGED
(b) Answer: That refers to Jews who sin with their bodies.
1. Question: We said that such people have no
(c) (Rava) A Pasuk is inferred to refer to the Jewish People
saying that Hashem listens to their cries; when they
don't have enough Mitzvos, He tips the scales in their
2. Answer: That is only where they have a majority of
sins; but where they are 50/50 and have sinned with
their bodies, they descend to Gehinom for a period.
(d) Question: Who are Jews who sin with their bodies?
(e) Answer (Rav): People who don't wear Tefillin.
(f) Question: Who are non-Jews who sin with their bodies?
(g) Answer (Rav): People who are licentious.
(h) Question: Who are people that spread fear?
(i) Answer (Rav Chisda): Community leaders who instill fear
amongst their community for evil motives.
1. (R. Yehudah, citing Rav) Such people do not see
their sons becoming Torah scholars.
(j) Question: Beis Hillel said that Hashem tilts the scales
of intermediate people in their favor- how does this
(k) Answer (R. Eliezer) He pushes down the good side (as
derived from a Pasuk).
(l) Alternate answer (R. Yosi bar Chanina): He lifts up the
bad side (as derived from a Pasuk).
(m) Alternate answer (d'Bei R. Yishmael): He places the
first sins on the side, as is one of His attributes (as
derived from a Pasuk).
1. (Rava) These first sins are not erased; if the
person still has a majority of sins, they are added
(a) (Rava) If somebody overlooks those who wrong him, the
attribute of judgment overlooks his sins.
1. This is derived from the Pasuk mentioning Hashem's
forgiving sins being followed by overlooking
(b) (R. Acha bar Chanina) The Pasuk later says something
comforting, but not for all; Hashem forgives, but only
those who regard themselves as unworthy.
2. R. Huna b. R. Yehoshua was saved from a verdict of
death because he overlooked those who wronged him.
(c) (R. Huna) It says that Hashem is "righteous" (exacting)
and then that He is "pious" (generous) - the latter is
when He sees that the world cannot survive the former.
4) THE THIRTEEN ATTRIBUTES OF MERCY
(d) (R. Elazar) It says that Hashem is kind, and then that
He is exacting - as above.
(e) (Ilfi/Ilfa) Similar contradiction and resolution.
(a) (R. Yochanan) Hashem clothed Himself like a Shaliach
Tzibur and told Moshe that whenever the Jews recite the
thirteen attributes, they will be forgiven.
5) CHANGING THE VERDICT FOR A COMMUNITY
1. "Hashem Hashem" - displaying mercy both before man
sins and after he has sinned and repented.
(b) Question: We see that there is no infallible method of
2. (R. Yehudah) "The Merciful G-d" - that there is a
covenant that a recital of the thirteen attributes
will always be answered.
3. (R. Yochanan) Great is Teshuvah, that it tears up a
person's verdict, as derived from a Pasuk saying
that he is healed.
i. Question (R. Papa): Perhaps that's only before
ii. Answer (Abaye): It is only a verdict that
1. If one repents before Yom Kipur, one is forgiven;
otherwise, all the Korbanos in the world won't
(c) Answer: It is only for a community that the recital of
the 13 attributes works even after the verdict.
(d) Question: We see that there is no infallible method for
tearing up the verdict:
1. If the nation was originally wicked and the verdict
was for less rain, later repentance cannot change
the verdict, but the rain will fall in the best
(e) Answer: It is only not changed because there is a
2. If the nation was originally righteous and the
verdict was for more rain, later sins cannot change
the verdict, but the rain will fall in the worst
3. We see that the verdict is never changed!?
(a) Question: We find that even with a community, there is
no way of changing a verdict:
1. Pesukim speak of sailors crying out in distress due
to a storm and thanking Him for His help.
(b) Answer: They are only a group, rated as individuals,
rather than a community.
2. The Pesukim are enclosed by brackets, teaching us
that He doesn't help if the verdict has already
(c) Question: We see that the verdict cannot be changed:
1. Question (Bluriya ha'Giyores): One Pasuk says that
Hashem does not show favor, while another states
that He does!?
(d) Answer: That is only referring to an individual.
2. Answer (R. Yosi ha'Kohen): There is a parable:
i. A man swears by the life of a king to pay his
loan on time.
3. Alternate answer (R. Akiva): Before the verdict He
shows favor, afterwards He doesn't.
ii. He fails to do so, and asks the king for
iii. The king forgives, but warns him to seek
forgiveness from the lender.
iv. Similarly, Hashem can only show favor to those
who sinned to Him, not to those who sinned to