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by R. Nosson Slifkin
1) YOM KIPUR
(a) Levi went to Bavel and commented that what they thought was the 11th of Tishrei was actually Yom Kipur as declared in Eretz Yisrael.2) CALCULATING NISAN AND PESACH
(a) If the winter season extends to the 16th of Nisan, the year should be made into a leap year.1. The reason is that the Pasuk instructs us to ensure that Nisan falls in spring.(b) R. Nachman instructed sailors to burn the chametz when the moon shines until sunrise.1. Question: Surely that happens on the 15th of Nisan, and the chametz must be burned on the 14th?
3) MISHNAH: TRANSGRESSING SHABBOS FOR TESTIMONY
(a) Witnesses of the new moon can transgress Shabbos to inform Beis Din only for the months of Nisan and Tishrei.4) TRANSGRESSING SHABBOS FOR MESSAGE DELIVERY1. Messengers would be sent to Suria and the dates of the festivals were contingent on these.(b) When the Beis ha'Mikdash was standing, they could transgress Shabbos for all months, so that the Rosh Chodesh Korbanos could be correctly brought.
(a) Question: Would messengers be sent to Suria only for these two months?5) MISHNAH: CLEAR MOONS1. In an earlier Mishnah, it stated that they are sent for six months!(b) Answer: They are sent for six months, but they may only transgress Shabbos for two.1. This is because on these two months they may only leave after hearing Beis Din formally sanctify the month, which shortens the available journey time.(c) A Pasuk teaches us that the festivals must be declared on time, even at the cost of transgressing Shabbos (by witnesses).1. One might think that we may also transgress Shabbos to ensure that they are *observed* on time (i.e. to send messengers).(d) Originally, witnesses would transgress Shabbos for all festivals; after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, R. Yochanan said that since there are no Korbanos, Shabbos may only be transgressed for Nisan and Tishrei.
(a) Whether or not the moon was clearly visible to all, the witnesses may transgress Shabbos.6) THE GATES OF UNDERSTANDING1. (R. Yosi) If it was visible to all, they may not transgress Shabbos.(b) Forty pairs of witnesses once came but were detained by R. Akiva at Lod.
(a) A Pasuk is brought to show that the Mishnah is referring to the moon being clearly visible.Next daf