POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 34
ROSH HASHANAH 31-35 (Siyum!) - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) THE FORM AND MAKE-UP OF THE BLASTS (Cont.)
(a) Question: How do we know that the threefold
Tekiyah-Teruah-Tekiyah should be blown three times?
2) AN ALTERNATE SOURCE: THE WILDERNESS
(b) Answer: Three Pesukim mention Teruah (and we know that
Teruah is always preceded and followed by Tekiyah).
(c) Question: One of these Pesukim refers to Yovel, and the
other two refer to Rosh Hashanah - how do we know to
apply them to each other?
(d) Answer: The Torah say the phrase "seventh month" in both
contexts to make a Gezerah Shaveh.
(e) Thus, the Shofar is blown in three sets which consist of
a total of nine blasts; the length of a Tekiyah is like a
Teruah, and the length of a Teruah is like three
(f) Question: Originally, the Tana linked the laws of Rosh
Hashanah and Yovel by means of a Hekesh (7d on previous
Daf), yet he now uses a Gezerah Shaveh!?
(g) Answer: He means that were it not for the Gezerah Shaveh,
he would have used the Hekesh, but now that he has a
Gezerah Shaveh, the Hekesh is not needed.
(a) Another Tana learns that the Teruah is preceded and
followed by a Tekiyah from the description of the
3) R. AVAHU'S ORDER
(b) "u'Tekaatem Teruah" is an instruction for a separate
Tekiyah and Teruah.
1. Question: Perhaps it refers to blowing a single
(c) Question: How do we know that the Tekiyah precedes the
2. Answer: A later Pasuk speaks of there being a
Tekiyah without a Teruah, so this Pasuk must mean
that both are present.
(d) Answer: Because "u'Tekaatem" precedes "Teruah."
(e) Question: How do we know that a Tekiyah follows the
(f) Answer: Because another Pasuk says "Teruah" and then
(g) (R. Yishmael) A simpler source is that it superfluously
says that "u'Tekaatem Teruah for a *second* time,"
teaching us that a Tekiyah is always sounded after a
1. Question: That was only said in reference to the
desert encampment; how do we know to apply it to
(h) (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani) Two are from the Rabanan, as
another Pasuk is needed to teach us that it may only be
sounded by day.
2. Answer: We link them with a Gezerah Shaveh from the
words "Teruah" in each context.
3. Three Teruos are mentioned in the context of Rosh
Hashanah, each accompanied by two Tekiyos, resulting
in three Teruos and six Tekiyos; two from the Torah,
and one from the Rabanan (as the third Pasuk is used
for the Gezerah Shaveh.)
1. R. Yishmael learns that from "Yom ha'Kipurim."
(i) Question: If it is being learned from the wilderness
encampment, perhaps it refers to trumpets, as was the
2. Question: If he is learning from the Yom Kipur of
Yovel, why doesn't he also learn the Tekiyos
preceding and following the Teruos from there?
3. Answer: As he doesn't feel that the word
"ve'Haavarta" indicates a Tekiyah.
i. He uses it instead to teach us that the Shofar
must be used in the form that the animal
carries it (and not inverted); and he uses the
word "Taaviru" to teach that the Shofar must be
carried by hand.
ii. The other opinion feels that since the Torah
used the unusual term "Taaviru," it must be
like the other usage of that term which refers
(j) Answer: The Pasuk says that the Shofar should be blown on
the festival when the moon is covered i.e. Rosh Hashanah.
(a) R. Avahu decreed in Kisari that Tekiyah, three Shevarim,
Teruah, then Tekiyah should be blown.
(b) Question: If Yevava (the translation of Yom Teruah) means
whimpering, then it should be Tekiyah-Teruah-Tekiyah, and
if it means moaning, then it should be
(c) He was in doubt as to which it meant.
(d) Question: If it does mean whimpering, then the Shevarim
is interrupting between the Tekiyah and the Teruah!?
(e) Answer: He must therefore also sound a
(f) Question: If it does mean moaning, then the Teruah is
interrupting between the Shevarim and the Tekiyah!?
(g) Answer: He must therefore also sound a
(h) Question: If he is anyway doing both these versions, what
was the point of instituting
(i) Answer: In case it Yevava means both moaning and
1. Question: In that case he should also sound
Tekiyah-Teruah-Shevarim-Tekiyah, in case it means
whimpering followed by moaning?
2. Answer: The usual case is that when a person is
upset he first moans and then whimpers.
4) DELAYS DURING THE SHOFAR BLASTS
(a) (R. Yochanan) If he heard the nine blasts spread over
nine hours of the day, he is Yotze.
5) SHOFAR AND TEFILLAH
(b) A Beraisa confirms this:
1. If he heard the nine blasts spread over nine hours
of the day, he is Yotze.
(c) Question: Surely R. Yochanan said that if, during the
reading of Hallel or Megillah, there was a delay of a
period of time adequate to finish it, he must start
2. If he heard them from nine people simultaneously, he
is not Yotze.
3. If he heard them from nine people sequentially, he
4. This is true even if there were gaps between them,
and even if they were spread over the entire day.
(d) Answer: This was not his own opinion; he was citing R.
Shimon b. Yehotzadak.
1. Question: But we see that he also held of it, as
when R. Avahu paused during reciting Shema when
passing dirty alleys, R. Yochanan told him that if
the delay was long enough to finish it, he must
(e) The trumpet blasts and Berachos of a fast day are not
essential to each other.
2. Answer: He meant to say "According to me, there was
no need either to pause or to start again after a
long pause; but according to you that both are true,
the length of such a pause is the time that it would
take to finish it."
1. The Shofar blasts and Berachos of Rosh Hashanah, and
Yom Kipur of Yovel, are essential to each other.
2. The reason is that on Rosh Hashanah Hashem instructs
us to say Malchuyos to accept His sovereignty,
Zichronos to raise a remembrance of us before Him,
with the aid of the Shofar (Shofaros).
(a) The Mishnah said that if one said Musaf and only then
gained access to a Shofar, he should blow
Tekiyah-Teruah-Tekiyah three times.
6) THE SHALIACH TZIBUR
i. The implication is that if he did have a Shofar
originally, he should hear it during Musaf.
(b) R. Papa bar Shmuel told his attendant that when he
signals to him during his Amidah, he should blow the
i. (Rava) Sounding the Shofar during the Amidah is
only done with a congregation.
(c) A Beraisa supports Rava:
1. He should hear the Shofar blasts in the proper
order, and during the order of the Berachos.
2. This is only true for a congregation, but an
individual does not hear the Shofar during the
3. An individual who did not blow Shofar can have
someone else blow for him.
4. But an individual who did not recite the Amidah
cannot have someone else recite it for him.
5. It is better to be with those who sound Shofar than
to be with those who say Musaf - faced with a choice
of two cities, one doing each, you should go to the
city with Shofar.
i. Question: This is obvious - Shofar is d'Oraisa,
and Musaf is d'Rabanan?
ii. Answer: It refers to a case where one city is
definitely saying Musaf, and the other is only
possibly sounding Shofar.
(a) The Mishnah said that just as the Shaliach Tzibur must
say the prayer, so too must every individual; R. Gamliel
said that the Shaliach Tzibur is Yotze for them.
(b) A Beraisa discusses this dispute:
1. They asked R. Gamliel: Why the congregation says a
silent Amidah beforehand?
(c) (Rabah bar bar Chanah citing R. Yochanan) The Rabanan
conceded to R. Gamliel.
i. He answered: To give time for the Shaliach
Tzibur to prepare his Amidah.
2. He asked the Rabanan: What is the point of the
i. They answered: To be Motzi those who are unable
to say the Amidah.
ii. He replied: So, too, he can be Motzi those who
are able to say it.
(d) (Rav) The dispute still stands.
1. The Gemara cites another instance of this debate.
(e) Question: Surely R. Yochanan has been cited as saying
that the Halachah follows R. Gamliel, implying that there
is a dispute!?
(f) Answer: The Rabanan only conceded with the prayers of
Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur of Yovel, but the dispute
still stands regarding the prayers of the rest of the