ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 9
ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
(a) The Rabbanan of Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah
(who hold that the Yovel is *not* the first year of the following cycle) -
come to preclude the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, in whose opinion it *is*.
(b) Rebbi Akiva learns from the Pasuk "be'Charish u'va'Katzir Tishbos"
(which, in his opinion, refers to the Sh'mitah year) - that there is a
period of Tosefes Shevi'is, when plowing is forbidden on Erev Shevi'is
leading up to the Sh'mitah year, and so too, is harvesting of produce that
grew one third of their full growth in the Sh'mitah-year.
(c) In spite of the fact that the phrase that precedes "be'Charish
u'va'Katzir Tishbos" (i.e. "Sheishes Yamim Ta'avod") refers to Shabbos,
Rebbi Akiva declines to interpret it with regard to Shabbos - because, he
argues, why would the Torah then single out specifically plowing and
reaping, as if to say that all other Melachos are permitted?
(d) He establishes the Pasuk by *Tosefes* Shevi'is, rather than by the La'av
of working in the Sh'mitah - for which we already have a Pasuk in Behar
("Sadcha Lo Sizra, ve'Karmecha Lo Sivtzor" - and harvesting is included in
Betzirah [harvesting grapes] see Tosfos DH 'Sheharei').
(a) Rebbi Yishmael relates "be'Charish u'va'Katzir Tishbos" - to Shabbos
(like the beginning of the Pasuk). According to him - the Pasuk is comparing
harvesting to plowing, to teach us that the Torah forbids only *voluntary*
plowing (because there is no such thing as plowing that is obligatory - i.e.
that is a Mitzvah to perform), so too, is the Torah's prohibition of
harvesting, confined to a *voluntary* harvest, but not when it is obligatory
(i.e. harvesting for the Omer, which is a Mitzvah).
(b) When Rebbi Yishmael says that the harvest of the Omer is a Mitzvah - he
means that it is obligatory, that even if cut barley is available, there is
nevertheless a Mitzvah to cut a fresh Omer (one tenth of an Eifah) for the
(a) *Rebbi Yishmael* learns the concept of adding from Chol on to Kodesh
from Yom Kipur ...
(b) He knows that the Torah is not telling us to *fast* on the ninth -
because the Torah writes "ba'Erev".
- ... when it comes in - from the Pasuk in Emor "ve'Inisem es Nafshoseichem *be'Sish'ah* la'Chodesh".
- ... when it goes out - from "me'Erev ad Erev".
(c) He learns from the continuation of the Pasuk ...
- ... "Tishbesu" - to include Tosefes Shabbos (when it comes in and when it goes out).
- ... "Shabatchem" - to include Tosefes Yom-Tov, too.
(a) Rebbi Akiva learns from the Pasuk "ve'Inisem es Nafshoseichem be'Sish'ah
la'Chodesh" the Derashah of Rav Acha from Difti - that it is a Mitzvah to
eat on Erev Yom-Kipur, and that if one did, he receives reward as if he had
fasted on the ninth and the tenth.
(b) We learn, according to him, from the fact that the Torah refers to
eating and drinking as 'Inuy' (affliction) - that the more one eats, the
greater the reward.
(a) The superfluous words "Yovel Hi" (in Parshas Behar) serve to include
some things and to preclude others. Rebbi Yehudah learns from "Yovel", that
Yovel takes effect even though the people did not cancel their debts and
even though the Beis-Din did not blow the Shofar - the third thing which
"Hi" teaches us, prevents Yovel from taking effect, is the releasing of
one's Jewish servants.
"u'Kerasem *D'ror* ba'Aretz" - means freedom (someone who is free to live
wherever he wants).
(b) According to Rebbi Yossi - it is blowing the Shofar which prevents
Sh'mitah from taking effect.
(c) According to Rebbi Yossi, blowing the Shofar carries more weight (in
this regard) than releasing one's servants, because it is possible for there
to be no servants, but not for there to be no Shofros. Alternatively - it is
because blowing the Shofar is incumbent upon the Beis-Din (and is unlikely
to be negated), whereas releasing one's servants is incumbent upon the
masses, who are more likely to be lax.
(d) Rebbi Yehudah learns from the Pasuk "u'Kerasem D'ror" that sending away
the servants carries more weight than blowing the Shofar - because it
immediately precedes "Yovel Hi", and he holds 'Mikra Nidrash Lefanav ve'Lo
(a) The Chachamim disagree with Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yossi. They
preclude all of the above-mentioned three things from the word "Hi" -
because they hold 'Mikra Nidrash Lefanav (releasing one's servants),
ve'Lifnei Fanav (blowing the Shofar) u'le'Acharav (the return of land to the
(b) They learn from the word "Yovel" that the releasing of servants in the
Yovel (which has nothing to do with the land) applies even in Chutz
la'Aretz. The Torah nevertheless writes "ba'Aretz" - to teach us that this
only applies in Chutz la'Aretz as long as Yovel applies in Eretz Yisrael.
(a) We learn from the Pesukim "Shalosh Shanim Areilim ... u'va'Shanah
ha'Revi'is" - that the New Year by Orlah is Rosh Hashanah (because of the
'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Shanah" "Shanah" ("me'Reishis ha'Shanah ... ").
(b) We learn the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from "me'Reishis ha'Shanah ... " and not
from "Rishon Hu Lachem le'Chodshei ha'Shanah" - because we prefer to learn
"Shanah" *without* Chodashim, from "Shanah" *without* Chodashim, rather than
from "Shanah" *with* Chodashim.
(b) According to the Beraisa, planting, re-planting or grafting is permitted
- provided one does it at least thirty days before the commencement of the
- ... 'Mavrich' - means to re-plant the end of a growing branch in the ground.
- ... 'Markiv' - mans to graft a piece of one tree in another tree.
(c) Should one perform any of these within thirty days of the Sh'mitah, it
is forbidden to retain what he did - because of Tosefes Shevi'is.
(d) The other area of Halachah affected by this thirty-day period - is the
years of Orlah.
(a) In the previous case, assuming that one did plant the tree before the
thirty day period - the fruit will only leave the realm of Orlah on the Tu
bi'Sh'vat following the third Rosh Hashanah (because the New Year for trees
is Tu bi'Sh'vat).
(b) The Beraisa's concluding words 've'Im li'Revai, li'Revai' - means that
exactly the same will apply to the fruit at the end of the fourth year,
which will remain Neta Re'vai until Tu bi'Sh'vat.