REVIEW QUESTIONS ON GEMARA AND RASHI
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 20
ROSH HASHANAH 19 & 20 (10, 11 Av) - dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's
grandmother, Mrs. G. Turkel, to the memory of her husband, Reb Yisrael
Shimon (Isi) ha'Levi Turkel, who loved Torah and worked to support Torah
until his last breath. He passed away on 10 Av 5780.
(a) In the second Lashon, we connect the witnesses' desecration of the
Shabbos with the obligation to sanctify Rosh Chodesh through the sighting of
How do we then attempt to prove that the second Adar must
be short, from the fact that the witnesses desecrated Shabbos for Rosh
Chodesh Nisan? What would we otherwise say if Adar Sheini could be full?
(b) How do we establish the Mishnah to refute this proof?
(a) The Seifa of the next Mishnah states that, when the Beis Hamikdash
stood, the witnesses would desecrate the Shabbos 'because of Takanas
What does that mean?
(b) What can we deduce from there regarding desecrating the Shabbos for Rosh
Chodesh Nisan and Tishri?
(c) How do we go on from there to disprove Rav (who says that Adar Sheini is
(a) It was extremely rare for Elul to be a full month. When it did,
according to Ula it was because of 'Yarkaya', and according to Rebbi Achah
bar Chanina, because of 'Meisaya'.
What is the meaning of ...
(b) Initially, we contend that the difference between the two reasons will
manifest itself in a year when Yom Kipur falls after Shabbos.
- ... 'Yarkaya'?
- ... 'Meisaya'?
'Yarkaya' not apply?
(c) On what grounds do we reject the previous contention?
(d) We conclude that the difference between them is when Yom-Tov falls
immediately before or after Shabbos.
Which of the two reasons will not
(a) Why will Rebbi Acha bar Chanina not agree that even when Yom-Tov falls
next to Shabbos, one should declare Elul a full month because of 'Yarkaya'?
(b) And why did Ula consider this a favor for the B'nei Bavel more than for
the B'nei Eretz Yisrael?
(a) The Beraisa of Rabah bar Shmuel states that, although one is permitted
to declare a leap-*year* when necessary, it is forbidden to postpone Rosh-
Chodesh and declare a full *month*, under any circumstances.
How do we
amend the Beraisa to accommodate Ula and Rebbi Acha bar Chanina (who say
that one *may*)?
(b) We corroborate this amendment with Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi's statement
about frightening the witnesses.
What did Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi say?
(c) And how does Abaye reconcile this with Rebbi Yochanan, who would
frighten the witnesses to say that they had seen the new moon, even when
(a) Rava leaves the original wording of Rabah bar Shmuel's Beraisa intact,
by establishing it like Acheirim.
Answers to questions
To which Acheirim is he referring?
(b) Rav Dimi from Neherda'a answers the Kashya (inferred in 5b.) by
switching the statements. According to him, the Tana holds that one
frightens the witnesses, if necessary, in order to make it a short month,
but not, to make it a full one.
What is now the Tana's reasoning?
(a) What did Shmuel claim that he was able to do?
(b) On what basis did Aba the father of Rebbi Simla'i dismiss that claim?
(a) What did Rebbi Zeira mean when he said that the night and day must be
from the new moon?
(b) Why did he put 'night' first?
(c) For how long is the moon invisible at the time of the Molad?
(d) Then what is the point in telling us that if the old moon is seen on the
night of the thirtieth, that day will not be Rosh Chodesh? Is that not
(a) And how did Rebbi Zeira explain the Beraisa of 'Sod ha'Ibur' (referred
to above by Aba the father of Rebbi Simla'i) 'Nolad Kodem Chatzos, be'Yadua
she'Nir'eh Samuch li'Sheki'as ha'Chamah ... '?
(b) Whereabouts in the sky is the new moon always seen for the first time
after the Molad?
(a) We have already learned that at the time of the Molad, the moon cannot
be seen for twenty-four hours.
Why is that?
(b) In Bavel, the old moon disappears eighteen hours before the Molad, and
the new one can be seen six hours after it.
What is the proportion in
(c) Why is the new moon visible to the B'nei Eretz Yisrael so much sooner
than it is to the B'nei Bavel?
(a) Rebbi Yochanan learns that the night precedes the day (as we saw above
in Rebbi Zeira's first Halachah) from "me'Erev ad Erev" (of Yom Kipur).
From which Pasuk in Emor does Resh Lakish learn it?
(b) Abaye maintains that there is no practical difference between the two
What does Rava say?
(a) What did Rebbi Zeira Amar Rav Nachman mean when he said that the Safek
of Yom-Tov is postponed (but not brought forward)?
Answers to questions
(b) What is the reason for that?