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1) [line 1] KO'ACH KACHUSH - a weak force. (When a person throws an object upwards and it veers slightly to the side, the "weak" force is the horizontal component of the force of his throw, which is still acting upon the object after it begins to descend, causing it to move in an outward trajectory ("l'Tzedadin"). The "strong" force is the vertical component of his throw, which ceases to act upon the object as soon as it begins to descend)
2) [line 7] "V'ISH KI YAKEH KOL NEFESH ADAM, MOS YUMAS" - "And he who kills any man shall surely be put to death." (Vayikra 24:17)
3) [line 9] KOL DEHU NEFESH - any minute amount of [a person's] soul (i.e. even the one who dealt the final deathblow)
4) [line 10] TEREIFAH
5a) [line 11] GOSES B'YDEI SHAMAYIM - a person about to die of natural
6) [line 19] MICHATCHEI SIMANIM - (a) the "Simanim," i.e. either the esophagus or the trachea, are *cut* (the Gemara happened to choose one of the signs of Tereifah -- YAD RAMAH, 1st explanation); (b) the signs of a Tereifah are *well-defined* (YAD RAMAH, 2nd explanation)
7) [line 28] "U'VI'ARTA HA'RA MI'KIRBECHA" - "... and you shall purge the evil out of your midst." (Devarim 13:6)
8) [line 30] EDUS SHE'IY ATAH YACHOL L'HAZIMAH
9a) [line 37] EDIM SHE'HE'IDU BI'TEREIFAH - witnesses who testify [as Edim
Zomemim] against a Tereifah [to convict him of a capital offense] (see
10) [line 38] LEFI SHE'EINAN B'ZOMEMEI ZOMEMIN - since the witnesses who are Edim Zomemim against them cannot themselves become Edim Zomemim (i.e. they cannot get the Din of "Ka'asher Zamam," since they plotted to kill dead people)
11) [line 40] "HA'SHOR YISAKEL V'GAM BE'ALAV YUMAS." - "[But if the bull was prone to gore with its horn in the past, and its owner had been warned, but he had not watched it properly, and it killed a man or a woman,] the bull shall be stoned, and its owner also shall pay Kofer (lit. be put to death)." (Shemos 21:29) - Our Gemara learns from this verse that the death of the bull is compared to the death of its owner. As such, since his owner is a Tereifah who would not be killed if he killed someone out of the sight of Beis Din (above, line 27), we do not kill his bull, either.
12) [line 43] KEIVAN D'ILU BE'ALIM HAVU PETIREI - since had the owner been a Tereifah himself, he would not be killed if he killed someone out of the sight of Beis Din, so, too, we do not kill his bull that is a Tereifah
13) [line 44] KESHE'TIMTZA LOMAR - when you analyze [this argument between the Tana'im] you will conclude
14a) [line 44] ERES NACHAS - a snake's poison
16) [line 46] ME'ATZMO HU MEKI - it secretes [the poison] on its own
17) [line 46] NACHASH BI'SEKILAH (SHOR HA'NISKAL)
18) [line 47] EGROF - a fist
20) [line 48] SHE'RAGLAYIM LA'DAVAAR - there is a logical foundation for this (to presume that he did not die due to the blow, since his condition improved in the interim)
21) [last line] "[V'CHI YERIVUN ANASHIM V'HIKAH ISH ES RE'EHU B'EVEN O V'EGROF, V'LO YAMUS V'NAFAL L'MISHKAV.] IM YAKUM V'HIS'HALECH BA'CHUTZ AL MISH'ANTO V'NIKAH HA'MAKEH; [RAK SHIVTO YITEN V'RAPO YERAPEI.]" - "[And if men quarrel together, and one strikes another with a stone, or with his fist, and he does not die, but is bedridden.] If he rises again, and regains his health and his strength, then shall he who struck him be acquitted; [only he shall compensate him for lost work, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed [by paying for the doctors].]" (Shemos 21:18-19)
22) [line 5] SHE'CHOVSHIN OSO - that they sequester him [under guard]
24) [line 11] YALIF MI'MEGADEF - he learns this Halachah from the case of the person who cursed the Name of HaSh-m, who was first put under guard because his punishment was not known. Afterwards, HaSh-m instructed Moshe Rabeinu that he was to be put to death by stoning (Vayikra 24:10-16, 23)
25) [line 12] HORA'AS SHA'AH HAYESAH - it was an enactment for that time only
26) [line 16] "[VA'YANICHU OSO BA'MISHMAR] KI LO FORASH MAH YE'ASEH LO." - "[And they put him under guard] since what was to be done to him was not elucidated." (Bamidbar 15:34) - This verse states, "what was to be done to him," indicating that he was to receive a penalty, but the penalty was not clear. Since desecrating Shabbos in public is tantamount to denying that HaSh-m is the First Cause of all creation, Moshe reasoned that the Mekoshesh deserved the death penalty. He was only waiting for HaSh-m to reveal to him by which death penalty he was to be punished.
27) [line 17] "[VA'YANICHUHU BA'MISHMAR,] LIFROSH LAHEM AL PI HASHE-M." - "[And they put him under guard,] in order that it (whether he was to be punished or not, and if so, how?) be elucidated according to HaSh-m."
28) [line 20] TREI UMDENEI - two estimates [that are learned from the extra words in the verses (Shemos 21:18-19), "v'Chi Yerivun Anashim v'Hikah Ish Es Re'ehu b'Even O v'Egrof, *v'Lo Yamus* v'Nafal l'Mishkav. *Im yakum v'His'halech ba'Chutz Al Mish'anto* *v'Nikah ha'Makeh*, Rak Shivto Yiten v'Rapo Yerape."
29) [line 25] SHE'HAREI YATZA MI'BEIS DIN ZAKAI - "since he has emerged innocent from Bei Din
30) [line 27] OMED SHENI L'MAMON - as second estimate to assess the monetary
value [of the damages] (CHOVEL)
1. NEZEK (Damages, also known as Pegam) - If one causes damage to the person of a fellow Jew, such as blinding his eye, cutting off his hand or breaking his foot, Beis Din assesses the damages that he caused based on the depreciation such damages would cause to a slave on the slave market.31) [line 28] OMED HA'EMTZA'I - the "middle estimate," i.e. the second estimate to assess the monetary value of the damages
32) [line 29] EIN OMED ACHAR OMED - (lit. there is no estimate after an estimate) we do not perform an additional estimate to assess the monetary value of the damages in the case where Beis Din estimated that the victim would die of his wounds, he recovered somewhat and died afterwards. Rebbi Nechemyah rules that the attacker pays the monetary value of the damages to the victim's heirs because the victim's recovery indicates that he died of other causes. The Rabanan argue and rule that the attacker is put to death.
33) [line 32] NEZEK V'TZA'AR - damages and pain (see above, entry #30) [as well as the other payments of Ripuy Sheves and Boshes, which were left out since that Tana of the Beraisa is not in the habit of listing the obvious]
34) [line 32] ME'EIMASAI MESHALEM? - (lit. From when does he pay?) From which point of the victim's life is the assessment for damages made?
35) [line 32] MI'SHA'AH SHE'HIKAHU - from the time that he struck him (i.e. his value before the injury minus his value after the injury)
36a) [line 34] NEFALIM - premature babies that were born alive but have
signs that they would not live for thirty days