POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 47
1) THE REASON FOR EULOGIES
(a) Answer #5 (Beraisa): "Nivzeh b'Einav Nim'as" - this is
Chizkiyah, who dragged his father's bones on a bed of
2) BURIAL OF SOMEONE EXECUTED
1. If (eulogies or other honor shown to the dead) is
really to honor the living, he would not have done
so (to disgrace the living)!
(b) Rejection: He did so in order that the disgrace would
atone for his father.
1. Question: If it is to honor the living, he should
not have delayed the honor of Yisrael (the eulogy)
for the sake of his father!
(c) Answer #6: Rebbi instructed 'Do not eulogize me in
2. Answer: Yisrael pardoned their honor to him.
1. If it is to honor the living, what difference does
it make to him?
(d) Rejection: he wanted Yisrael to get more honor through
(e) Answer #7 (Mishnah): If he left him for his honor, to
bring a coffin or shrouds, he does not transgress.
1. Suggestion: it means, for the deceased's honor.
(f) Rejection: No, it means for the honor of the living.
1. Question: Do we leave the deceased overnight in
order to honor the living?!
(g) Answer #8 (Beraisa): If he left him for his honor, for
eulogizers to gather in cities, to bring women to wail
over him, to bring a coffin or shrouds, he does not
transgress, for these are purely to honor the deceased.
2. Answer: Yes! The prohibition "Lo Salin" resembles
leaving a person hanging, which is a disgrace -
here, it is not a disgrace.
(h) Rejection: It means, whatever is purely to honor the
living, this is not a disgrace to the deceased.
(i) Answer #9 (Beraisa - R. Noson): It is a good sign for the
deceased if he is punished in this world, e.g. if he was
not eulogized, was not buried, was dragged around by an
animal, or it was raining on him.
1. It is an atonement if he was not eulogized,
therefore, it must be that the eulogy is to honor
(a) (Mishnah): Someone executed is not buried with his
3) IS DEATH AN ATONEMENT?
(b) Question: What is the reason?
(c) Answer: We do not bury a Rasha next to a Tzadik.
1. (R. Acha bar Chanina): We do not bury a Rasha next
to a Tzadik - "Va'Yashilchu Es ha'Ish b'Kever Elisha
va'Yiga ha'Ish b'Atzmos Elisha va'Ychi va'Yakam Al
Raglav (a Rasha was buried in Elisha's grave; the
man revived and walked out)".
(d) Similarly, we do not bury a severe Rasha near a less
2. Question (Rav Papa): You assume that he was revived
because a Rasha may not be buried near a Tzadik;
i. Perhaps this is wrong, he was revived to
fulfill the blessing (that Eliyahu agreed to)
"Vi'Hi Na Pi Shnayim b'Ruchacha Alai".
3. Answer (Rav Acha): If so, he should have lived
i. (Beraisa): He stood on his legs, but he did not
even reach his house.
4. Question: If so, when did Elisha revive another
person, to fulfill the blessing?
5. Answer (R. Yochanan): He cured Na'aman's Tzara'as;
i. A Metzorah is considered as dead - "Al Na Sehi
(e) Question: Beis Din should have four cemeteries, one for
each death penalty!
(f) Answer: A tradition from Moshe from Sinai teaches that
Beis Din has two cemeteries.
(a) (Ula citing R. Yochanan): If Reuven (unintentionally) ate
Chelev, was Makdish a Korban, became a Mumar (who cannot
bring a Korban) and repented, since the animal was once
Nidcheh (unable to be offered), it can never be offered.
(b) (R. Yirmeyah citing R. Yochanan): If Reuven ate Chelev,
was Makdish a Korban, went crazy and regained sanity,
since the animal was once Nidcheh, it can never be
(c) He must teach both cases.
1. If he only taught the first case, one might have
thought that there it can never be offered, because
he actively was Docheh the Korban - but if he went
crazy, this happens by itself, he is like one who
goes to sleep (the Korban is not Nidcheh);
(d) Support (Rav Yosef - Mishnah): If there were Kodshei
Mizbe'ach in an Ir ha'Nidachas, we do not burn them with
the rest of the city, we precipitate their death;
2. If he only taught the second case, one might have
thought that there it can never be offered, because
he cannot restore his sanity, but a Mumar can always
repent (so his Korban is not permanently Nidcheh).
1. If there were Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis, we redeem
(e) Objection (and Answer #2 - Abaye): No, death is not an
atonement for one who died without Teshuvah.
2. Question: Why do we kill Kodshei Mizbe'ach - once
the owners die, that is an atonement for them, the
Korbanos should be offered!
3. Answer #1: This is because once a Korban was Nidcheh
("Zevach Resha'im" may not be offered), it is
1. (Rav Shemaya): One might have thought, a Kohen
becomes Tamei to bury a relative who separated from
the ways of the Tzibur (e.g. a Mumar) - "B'Amav",
only if he acted like your people.
(f) Objection (against Abaye - Rava): There is a difference
between one who died without Teshuvah and one who was
executed without Teshuvah - since the latter did not die
naturally, his death atones for him!
(g) Support (Rava, for himself) Question: "...Nivlas
*Avadecha*...Besar *Chasidecha*" - what do these refer
1. Answer: "Chasidecha" are the true Tzadikim;
"Avadecha (Your servants)" are those who were worthy
to die, since they were killed, they are called
(h) Rejection (Abaye): Death at the hands of the king is
different than execution by Beis Din;
4) IT IS FORBIDDEN TO BENEFIT FROM A HUMAN CORPSE
1. Those killed by the king were not killed according
to law, therefore it atones for them;
(i) Support (Abaye, for himself - Mishnah): Someone executed
is not buried with his family.
2. Those killed by Beis Din were killed according to
law, therefore it does not atone for them (without
1. If Misas Beis Din is an atonement, he should be
buried with his family right away!
(j) Rejection (Rava): Death and the burial together bring
(k) Question (Rav Ada bar Ahavah - Mishnah): The relatives do
not mourn, they conduct Aninus, for this is not apparent
1. If death and the burial bring atonement, they should
(l) Answer #1: Decomposition of the flesh is also needed for
1. Support (Mishnah): After the flesh has decomposed,
his bones are buried with his family.
(m) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Really, death and the burial bring
atonement by themselves;
1. Mourning should begin from Stimas ha'Golel (Rashi -
sealing of the coffin; R. Tam - placing a stone to
mark off the grave), atonement is only after
suffering pain of burial;
(n) Question: If so, why do we wait until the flesh
decomposes before burying the bones with his family?
2. Since they were Nidchim (disqualified) from
beginning mourning at the proper time, they are
(o) Answer: It is not feasible to collect the bones while the
flesh is rotting.
(a) People would take dirt from Rav's grave to cure a fever
on the first day.
(b) Shmuel: It is permitted - the ground does not become
1. "Va'Yashlach Es Afarah (of the Asheirah) Al Kever
Benei ha'Am" - this equates a grave to idolatry:
(c) Question (Beraisa): If one dug a grave for his father (or
anyone else, after his death) and buried him elsewhere,
no one else may be buried in the first grave.
2. Idolatry attached to the ground is not forbidden -
"Eloheihem Al he'Harim" - their gods on the
mountains, the mountains are not their gods;
i. Likewise, attached dirt of a grave is
(d) Answer: The case is, he made a tomb above ground (since
it was originally detached, it becomes forbidden).
(e) Question (Beraisa): It is permitted to benefit from a new
1. If a Nefel (stillborn baby) was put inside, it is
forbidden to benefit from it;
(f) Answer: Here also, the tomb is above ground.
(g) Question (Beraisa): There are three types of graves - a
found grave, a known grave, a grave that harms the
1. If one finds a grave on his property that he did not
authorize, he may move it; after he does so, its
place is Tahor and one may benefit from it;
(h) Answer: Here also, the tomb is above ground.
2. A known grave (the owner of the property authorized
it) - he may not move it; if he did so, its place is
Tamei and forbidden to benefit from it;
3. A grave that harms the public - he may move it;
after he does so, its place is Tamei and one may
benefit from it.
(i) Question: Why is it permitted to move a found grave -
perhaps it was a Mes Mitzvah, which acquires (the right
to remain in) its place!
(j) Answer: A Mes Mitzvah becomes known (if we did not hear
about it, we are not concerned for it).
(k) (Abaye): If one wove a garment for a Mes, it is forbidden
to benefit from it;
(l) (Rava): It is permitted to benefit from it.
1. Abaye forbids, because designation takes effect;
(m) Question: What is Abaye's reason?
2. Rava permits, because designation has no effect.
(n) Answer: He learns a Gezerah Shavah "Sham-Sham" from Eglah
Arufah - just as the calf is forbidden through
designation (being taken to the Nachal), also designation
for a Mes.
(o) Rava learns the Gezerah Shavah "Sham-Sham" from idolatry
- just as idolatry is not forbidden through designation
(until it is Ne'evad), also designation for a Mes.
(p) Question: Why doesn't Rava learn from Eglah Arufah?
(q) Answer: It is better to learn Meshamshim (things used for
a Mes) from Meshamshim (of idolatry), and not from Eglah
Arufah, which is itself forbidden.
(r) Question: Why doesn't Abaye learn from idolatry?
(s) Answer: We learn something proper (making shrouds for a
Mes) from something proper (Eglah Arufah), not from
idolatry, which is forbidden (such designation is less
meaningful, perhaps he will not serve it).