POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 108
SANHEDRIN 106-110 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs.
Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb
Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the
merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his
1) GENERATIONS WITH NO SHARE IN THE WORLD TO COME
(a) The people of Sedom have no share in the world to come -
"Ra'im" in this world, "Chata'im (which means lacking)"
in the world to come, but they will be judged;
2) DOR HA'MABUL
(b) R. Nechemyah says, also they will not be judged:
1. "Lo Yakumu Resha'im ba'Mishpat" - this is Dor
(c) Chachamim: They will not stand in the congregation of
Tzadikim, but they will stand (to be judged) in the
congregation of Resha'im.
2. "V'Chata'im ba'Adas Tzadikim" - these are the people
(d) The Meraglim have no share in the world to come:
1. "Va'Yamusu" - in this world; "...Ba'Magefah"
(Maharsha - this is written much later in the verse,
therefore it refers to a different death,) in the
world to come.
(e) R. Akiva says, Dor (the generation that died in)
ha'Midbar has no share in the world to come - "Ba'Midbar
ha'Zeh Yitamu v'Sham Yamusu";
(f) R. Eliezer says, they have a share - "Isfu Li
(g) The congregation of (i.e. those swallowed with) Korach
will never rise - "Va'Tchas Aleihem ha'Aretz" in this
world, "Va'Yovdu mi'Toch ha'Kahal" in the world to come.
(a) (Gemara - Beraisa - R. Akiva): Dor ha'Mabul has no share
in the world to come:
3) THE FLOOD
1. "Va'Yimach Es Kol ha'Yekum" - in this world,
"Va'Yimachu Min ha'Aretz" in the world to come;
(b) (Beraisa): Dor ha'Mabul became haughty because Hash-m
bestowed good on them - "Bateihem Shalom mi'Pachad v'Lo
Shevet Eloka Aleihem...B'Sof v'Chinor v'Yismechu l'Kol
Ugav Yechalu Yemeihem va'Tov Yemeihem uv'Rega She'ol
2. R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, they will not live,
they will not be judged - "Lo Yadun Ruchi va'Adam
l'Olam", there will be neither Din nor Ru'ach;
i. Alternatively - their Neshamos will not return
to the holders (their bodies).
3. R. Menachem b'Rebbi Yosef says, even when Hash-m
returns Neshamos to dead bodies, theirs will burn
their bodies - "Ru'chachem Esh Tochalchem".
1. This caused them to tell Hash-m "Sur Mimenu v'Da'as
Derachecha Lo Chafatznu Mah Shakai Ki Na'avdenu" -
we only rely on Hash-m for rain, and even this is
not essential, we can get water from rivers and
(c) R. Yosi says, they became haughty because they went after
their eyes (Maharsha - instead of closing them when they
should have) - "Va'Yikchu Lahem Nashim mi'Kol Asher
2. Hash-m: They anger Me with the good I bestowed on
them - I will punish them with it, "Hineni Mevi Es
1. Therefore, Hash-m punished them by (uncovering)
water (that exudes from a narrow source), like eyes
- "Nivke'u Kol Maynos Tehom Rabah va'Arubos
(d) (R. Yochanan): "Rabah Ra'as ha'Adam" - because the sin of
Dor ha'Mabul was Rabah (great), they were punished
accordingly - "Nivke'u Kol Maynos Tehom Rabah".
(e) (R. Yochanan): Three springs were left open after the
flood - Blo'ah of Gader, the hot spring of Tiverya, and
the great spring of Biram.
(f) (R. Yochanan): "Ki Hishchis Kol Basar Es Darcho" - they
would mate Behemos and Chayos, and people would mate with
1. (R. Aba bar Kahana): All the animals ceased to do
so, except for Tushlami (water rail, a bird which to
this day mates with other species).
(g) (R. Yochanan): Theft is very severe - Dor ha'Mabul
transgressed everything, their decree was only sealed on
account of theft, "Ki Mal'ah ha'Aretz Chamas Mipneihem
v'Hineni Mashchisam Es ha'Aretz";
1. R. Eliezer "He'Chamas Kam L'Mate Resha Lo Mehem v'Lo
me'Hamonam v'Lo me'Hemehem ..." - theft itself stood
up in front of Hash-m and said that there are no
redeeming qualities in the people or their
(h) (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): The decree was sealed even on
No'ach - "*Nichamti Ki Asisim v'No'ach*";
1. He was spared because he found grace in Hash-m's
eyes - "(V'No'ach) Matza Chen b'Einei Hash-m"
(i) Version #1 (Rav Dimi): "Va'Yinachem Hash-m Ki Asah Es
ha'Adam ba'Aretz" - Hash-m consoled Himself that He made
graves for people in the ground (Rashi - that He brought
the flood; Ramah - when Hash-m decreed death on Adam
ha'Rishon, He said that man would return to the dirt -
had He instead brought a flood, No'ach would not have
come to the world)!
(j) Question: How does the verse teach this?
(k) Answer: It says here "Va'Yinachem", as it says regarding
Yosef (comforting his brothers that he will not harm
them) "Va'Yinachem Osam va'Ydaber Al Libam".
(l) Version #2: Hash-m 'regretted' that He made graves for
people in the ground;
1. It says here "Va'Yinachem", as it says regarding
Hash-m's intent to destroy Yisrael on account of the
Egel "Va'Yinachem Hash-m Al ha'Ra'ah Asher Diber
(m) (R. Yochanan): "No'ach Ish Tzadik Tamim Hayah b'Dorosav"
- he was a Tzadik in his generations, but had he lived in
generations with big Tzadikim, he would not have been
considered a Tzadik.
1. (R. Chanina): A parable - a barrel of wine among
barrels of vinegar gives a good smell, elsewhere one
does not appreciate the smell.
(n) (Reish Lakish): All the more so, had he lived among big
Tzadikim he would have (learned from them and) been a
(o) (R. Oshaya): A parable - a flask of perfume in a
foul-smelling area gives a good smell, all the more so it
would do so amidst perfumes!
(a) Question: "Va'Yimach Es Kol ha'Yekum Asher Al Penei
ha'Adamah" - the people sinned, why were the animals
(b) Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): A parable - a man made
a wedding feast for his son, and prepared many foods. His
son died, he strewed them about - without his son, he has
no need for them;
1. Likewise, the animals were only for the sake of man
- now that man would be destroyed, there is no need
(c) "Be'Charavah Mesu" - but not fish.
(d) (R. Yosi of Kisri): "Kal Hu Al Penei Mayim..." - No'ach
told his generation that if they do not repent, Hash-m
will bring a flood and your bodies will float on the
water like pouches;
1. "Tekulal Chelkasam ba'Aretz" - people will use you
to curse ('You should be punished like Dor
(e) "Lo Yifneh Derech Keramim" - his generation scoffed, 'If
you are right, why doesn't Hash-m bring the flood right
1. No'ach: Hash-m wants to take one Tzadik
(Mesushelach, in his proper time) first, so he will
not be punished with you.
4) THE FLOOD (cont.)
2. His generation: If so, we need not clear the
vineyards (do Teshuvah now)!
(f) (Rava): "Lapid Buz l'Ashtus Sha'anan..." - No'ach rebuked
them, in a language as hard as Lapidim (flames), and they
were Mevazeh (disgracing) him and unafraid - when he told
them that the ark was for the Mabul, they said that they
can defend themselves:
1. His generation: If He will bring a Mabul of fire
(your ark will not help you, but) we have Alisah
(Rashi - which can withstand fire; Aruch - a
creature that can extinguish fire);
(g) (Beraisa): "Nachon l'Moadei Ragel" - the water of the
flood was as hot and thick as semen.
i. If He will bring a Mabul of water - if from the
ground, we will cover the ground with iron; if
from above, we have Akev (or Akush) to absorb
it (or Me'akev (stop) it.
2. No'ach: "Nachon l'Moadei Ragel" - He can bring water
(alternatively - semen) from between your legs, you
cannot stop this!
(h) (Rav Huna): They sinned with hot (semen), therefore they
were punished with hot water;
1. It says "Va'Yashoku ha'Mayim", similar to "Va'Chamas
ha'Melech Shachachah" (implying that before, it was
(i) Question: "Va'Yhi l'Shiv'as ha'Yamim" - what happened
during these seven days?
(j) Answer #1 (Rav): It was the mourning over the death of
Mesushelach - this shows that eulogies of a Tzadik hold
(k) Answer #2: Hash-m changed the nature of the world
established in the seven days of creation - the sun rose
in the west and set in the east.
(l) Answer #3: First Hash-m gave them a long time (120 years)
to repent, then He added to this a short time (seven
(m) Answer #4: During the seven days he gave them a taste of
the world to come, so that they would know what they
(n) Question: "Mi'Kol ha'Behemah...Ish v'Ishto" - there is no
marriage among animals!
(o) Answer (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Animals which had not
mated with other species were taken.
(p) Question: How did No'ach know which animals had not
(q) Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): He passed the animals in front of
the ark - it would only take those which had not sinned.
(r) Answer #2 (R. Avahu): The animals which had not sinned
came by themselves.
(a) Question: "Tevas Atzei *Gofer*" - what it this?
(b) Answer (Rav Ada): Mavligah - some say, it was Gulamish
(these are species of cedar).
(c) (R. Yochanan): "Tzohar Ta'aseh la'Tevah" - Hash-m told
No'ach to put gems in the ark that will illuminate like
(the sun at) noon.
(d) "V'El Amah Techalenah mi'Lma'alah" - in order that it
will not topple;
(e) "Tachtiyim Shniyim u'Shlishim Ta'aseha" - the bottom
floor for waste, the middle for the animals, the top for
(f) (Reish Lakish): "Va'Yshalach Es ha'Orev" - the raven gave
(what it considered to be) an irrefutable argument:
1. Hash-m hates me, and you hate me - Hash-m commanded
to take seven (pairs) of each Tahor species, but
only one pair of each Tamei species;
(g) (Beraisa): Three (males) had relations in the ark - the
dog, the raven and Cham - all were punished:
2. You hate me - you did not take a Tahor species for
your mission, rather, me - if the heat or cold will
kill me, the world will lack a species (the other
raven will die without offspring)!
i. Perhaps you wish to sin with my mate!
3. No'ach: Rasha! In the ark, I was forbidden to my
wife, who is normally permitted to me - all the more
so I am forbidden to your mate, who is always
forbidden to me!
4. Question: What is the source that relations were
forbidden in the ark?
5. Answer: It says "U'Vasa El ha'Tevah Ata u'Vanecha
v'Ishtecha u'Nshei Vanecha" (the men should enter
the ark together by themselves, the women by
themselves), and it says "Tzei Min ha'Tevah Ata
v'Ishtecha u'Vanecha u'Nshei Vanecha" (leave the ark
i. (R. Yochanan): This teaches that relations were
forbidden in the ark.
1. Dogs are normally tied (on a leash; alternatively,
they are stuck together after relations);
(h) (R. Yirmeyah): "Va'Yshalach Es ha'Yonah *me'Ito* (the
dove was near No'ach when he sent it)" - this teaches
that it is good for Tahor birds to be near Tzadikim.
2. Male ravens spit semen into the females' mouths;
3. The skin of (Rashi - Kush, the son of) Cham was
stricken (the color changed).
(i) (R. Elazar): "Alei Zayis Taraf b'Fiha" - the dove told
Hash-m that it prefers bitter food (such as olives)
directly from Him, to food sweet as honey given by man.
1. 'Taraf' connotes food - "Hatrifeni Lechem Chuki".
(j) (R. Yochanan): "L'Mishpechoseihem Yatz'u Min ha'Tevah" -
the animals left as couples (to reproduce), but not the
(k) (Rav Chana bar Bizna): Avraham's slave Eliezer asked Shem
"L'Mishpechoseihem Yatz'u" (each species by itself) - how
did you feed each species according to its needs (Rashi;
Maharsha - why didn't you also leave as couples?)
(l) Shem: We were in great pain (Maharsha - therefore, we
simply left as we were in the ark) - some animals must be
fed by day, others by night.
1. No'ach did not know what to feed the Zikisa (a
certain Chayah). One day, No'ach was cutting a
pomegranate, and a worm fell out, the Zikisa ate it
- from then on, No'ach would knead bran (in water),
when it became wormy, he would feed it to the
(m) (R. Chana bar Livai): Shem asked Eliezer 'How did
(Avraham and) you fight the four kings?'
2. The lion caught a fever and was nourished by it (it
removed its appetite);
i. (Rav): A fever nourishes between six and 12
days (some say - months).
3. No'ach saw the Avarrshinah (Chol, a species of bird
that never dies) sleeping in its cell - he asked,
don't you need food?
4. The Avarrshinah: I saw that you were busy, I did not
want to bother you.
5. No'ach: Hash-m should grant that you never die -
"Vecha'Chol Arbeh Yamim".
1. Eliezer: Hash-m put Avraham on His right; Avraham
threw dirt, it turned into swords; he threw straw,
it turned into arrows - "Ne'um Hash-m l'Adoni Shev
Li'Mini Ad Shis Oyvecha Hadom l'Raglecha", "...Yiten
ke'Afar Charbo k'Kash Nidaf Kashto".