ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 82
(a) Initially, when Rav Kahana asked Rav what punishment was due to a Bo'el
Aramis who was not killed by a zealous person - he could not recall the
(b) He remembered however, following a dream that Rav Kahana related to him,
based on a Pasuk in Mal'achi. "Bagdah Yehudah" he said, referred to
Avodah-Zarah. He interpreted ...
1. ... "ve'So'evah Ne'es'sah be'Yisrael ... " - as homosexuality.
(c) And the Pasuk concludes "Yachris Hashem la'Ish Asher Ya'asenah ... ".
Rav interprets the words ...
2. ... "Ki Chilel Yehudah es K'dosh Hashem" - as prostitution.
3. ... "u'Ba'al Bas Keil Neichar" - as having relations with a Nochris.
1. ... "Er ve'Onah be'Ohalei Ya'akov" - as pertaining to a sinner who is a
Talmid-Chacham, and who will leave no children or grandchildren who are
2. ... "u'Magish Minchah la'Hashem Tzevakos" - as pertaining to a sinner who
is a Kohen, and who will leave no children or grandchildren who will bring a
Minchah to Hashem (i.e. who will serve in the Beis-Hamikdah).
(a) Rebbi Chiya bar Avuyah ...
1. ... extrapolates from the Pasuk "u'Ba'al bas Keil Neichar" - that if
someone who has relations with a Nochris, it is as if he had married a
foreign god (because otherwise, gods don't have daughters.
(b) When Rebbi P'reida's grandfather once came across it - he tried twice to
bury it, but each time the earth rejected it; so he concluded that it must
be the skull of Yehoyakim, about which the Navi Yirmiyah prophesied 'Kevuras
Chamor Yikaver' (and dead donkeys tended to be left lying in the streets in
2. ... says - that the skull of Yehoyakim was left lying at the gates of
Yerushalayim, an on it was written 'Od ve'Zos Acheres' (This and another
(c) What prompted ...
1. ... him to wrap it in silks and place it in a box - was the fact that it
was not Kavod for a king's skull to be left lying in the open like that.
(d) Rebbi P'reida's grandfather's final words on the subject were - that the
prophetic words 'Zos ve'Od Achares' written on the skull had now been
2. ... his wife to burn it - was the neighbor's comments that it must be the
skull of Rebbi P'reida's first wife, whom he could not forget.
(a) When Rav Dimi arrived from Eretz Yisrael, he stated that it was the
Beis-Din of the Chashmona'im who decreed on 'Nashga' - the acronym of Nidah,
Shifchah, Goyah, Eishes Ish.
(b) In this context, we must interpret ...
1. ... 'Nidah" to mean - that even though Halachically, there is no such
thing as Nidah by Nochrim, the fact that she is technically a Nidah is a
desecration of Kedushas Yisrael.
(c) And when Ravin arrived, he presented it as 'Nashgaz'. The 'Zayin' stands
for - Zonah.
2. ... 'Shifchah' - that Yisrael are considered the master nation, and the
Nochrim, like a Shifchah.
3. ... 'Eishes Ish' - that (like we just explained by Nidah) Chazal took
into account the fact that it resembles Eishes Ish, even though, min
ha'Torah, 'Eishes Ish' does not pertain to them, only 'Be'ulas Ba'al'.
(d) The reason that ...
1. ... Ravin rejects Rav Dimi's version is - because, as we jut explained,
there is no Ishus by Nochrim (and neither did the Rabbanan institute it, in
2. ... Rav Dimi rejects Ravin's is - because Nochrim do not tend to make
their wives Hefker.
(a) Rav Chisda rules that if someone asks a Rav whether he may go ahead and
kill a Bo'el Aramis - he is told that he may not (in other words, the
concession only applies to someone who acts spontaneously).
(b) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan says the same thing, adding
that had Zimri ...
1. ... separated from Kozbi - and Pinchas would have then killed him, he
would have been Chayav Miysah (because the concession to kill them only
applies whilst they are actually involved in the act).
(c) What prompted Zimri to do what he did - was his tribe (Shimon)'s
request, that the judges appointed by Moshe were beginning to kill the
sinners (mainly from Shimon), and that he should intervene on their behalf.
2. ... had turned round and killed Pinchas (in self-defense) -he would have
(d) So obliged by taking twenty-four thousand people with him, and accosting
(a) When Zimri accosted her Kozbi she initially declined on the basis of her
father's instructions to go for Yisrael's leader (Moshe), exclusively.
(b) Zimri's responded - by pointing out that not only was he also a leader
of a tribe (Shelumiel ben Tzurishaday, the Nasi of Shimon), but that his
greatgrandfather Shimon (the second-born of Ya'akov) was senior to Levi,
Moshe's greatgrandfather (who was Only the third-born).
(c) He then - grabbed Kozbi by the hair and took her before Moshe, whom he
asked whether she was permitted or not, and if not, who had then allowed him
to marry a daughter of Yisro (also from Midyan).
(d) Moshe and the men who were with him reacted - by weeping. He did not do
what Pinchas did - because he forgot the Halachah.
(a) Moshe forgot the Halachah, but Pinchas remembered, as Rav informs us,
quoting the Pasuk "va'Yar Pinchas ben Elazar" ('Ra'ah Ma'aseh, ve'Nizkar
(b) He reminded Moshe that, when he came down from Har Sinai - he had taught
them 'ha'Bo'el es ha'Kutis, Kana'in Pog'in Bo'.
(c) When he referred to 'Achi Avi Aba', he referred to Moshe (his
grandfather Aharon's brother).
(d) Moshe's famous reply was - 'Karyana de'Igresa Iyhu Lehavi Parvanka'
('The one who reads the letter is the one who should carry out its
(a) When, to explain "va'Yar Pinchas", Shmuel quotes the dictum "Ein
Chochmah, ve'Ein Tevunah ve'Eitzah Neged Hashem", he means - that Pinchas
recalled the Halachah that when there is a Chilul Hashem, it is not the time
to give honor to one's Rebbe, but to act, which explains why Pinchas went
ahead and killed Zimri and Kozbi, and did not wait for Mosha to do it.
(b) According to Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Elazar, he saw a Mal'ach - who
began killing the people. He then removed the metal from the tip of the
wooden spear - to hide his true intentions from the B'nei Shimon (as we will
(c) We learn from the words "va'Yikach Romach be'Yado" - that it is
forbidden to enter the Beis-Hamedrash (from where he now set out on his
(d) To gain entry into the tent where Zimri and Kozbi were, he complained to
the B'nei Shimon - that he did not see why the B'nei Shimon were greater
than the B'nei Levi (his tribe [i.e. why *they* should have all the fun,
whilst his tribe practiced restraint]).
(e) The B'nei Shimon responded with the words - 'Let him enter. The Tzadikim
have permitted it!')
(a) Six miracles occurred with Pinchas.
(b) The first miracle was that Zimri did not separate from Kozbi (which
would have forbidden Pinchas to take any action). Zimri might have also
called out for help, but miraculously did not?
(c) The third miracle was that Pinchas (who was not an experienced
swordsman) pierced Zimri and Kozbi in exactly the right spot, and the fourth
miracle was as he picked them up, they did not slide off the sword (to show
the people that he killed them for their sin, and not for any personal
(d) The miracle that occurred ...
1. ... as he carried them through the tent entrance was - that an angel
raised the lintel for Pinchas to carry them through without having to bend
2. ... after that was - that another angel began killing the B'nei Shimon,
to keep them occupied looking after their dead, leaving them no time to kill
Pinchas for having killed their Nasi.
(a) When depositing them in front of Hashem, Pinchas declared 'What, for
these, twenty-four thousand of Yisrael had to die'?
(b) According to Rebbi Elazar, the Pasuk writes "va'Ya'amod Pinchas
va'Yefalel", and not va'Yispalel" - to hint that his prayers achieved
wonders (from the word 'Pela'os'), as we shall now see.
(c) As a result of his prayers ...
1. ... Hashem answered the Angels, who wanted to kill him for his
brazenness - that he had inherited his zealousness from his ancestor Levi
(who, together with his brother Shimon, had killed the town of Sh'chem in
their zealousness for their daughter. But he was also an averter of anger
the grandson of an averter of anger (Aharon who, like Pinchas, stopped a
plague [with the Ketores]).
(d) For having atoned for K'lal Yisrael - Pinchas was rewarded with a. a
covenant of peace; b. with everlasting Kehunah.
2. ... the Torah answered the tribes (who accused him of acting brashly
because he was the grandson of 'Puti', alias Putiel, Yisro - who had
fattened calves for Avodah-Zarah), by referring to him as Pinchas ben Aharon
ben ha'Kohen (who represented Yisrael before Hashem).
(a) Rav Nachman Amar Rav explains the significance of the four hundred and
twenty four Be'ilos that Zimri made with Kozbi - in that they made him weak,
rendering him incapable of retaliating (though this would weaken the first
two miracles which we discussed earlier). The connection with the Pasuk
"Zarzir Mosnayim O Tayash" is - that the numerical value of "Zarzir" is four
hundred and twenty four (see Agados Maharsha).
(b) The continuation "u'Melech Alkom Imo" means - that Hashem (who is called
'Melech Alkom) was on his side, and had he known that, he would not have
needed to wait for Zimri to become weak.
(c) The Beraisa disagrees. According to the Tana - Zimri had sixty Be'ilos
(d) When the Tana says 'Ad she'Na'aseh ke'Beitzah (or ke'Beitzim)
ha'Muzeres' - he means that his testicles because soft like scrambled eggs
from the vast amount of seed and the many Be'ilos.
(e) And he also described him as a row (of plants) full of water.
(a) Rav Kahana describes the place where they lay as being sixty Amos. Rav
Yosef quoting a Beraisa, describes her womb - as being sixty Amos long
(though it is not clear what these measurements mean).
(b) Although, as Rav Sheishes says, Kozbi's real name was Sh'vilna'i, the
Torah nevertheless calls her 'Kozbi' - because she let down father (who had
ordered her to go for Moshe exclusively, as we explained earlier).
(c) Others say that Kozbi is the acronym of 'Kus Bi Am Zeh', which means -
'Destroy this nation through me'.
(d) And the meaning of ...
1. ... the saying 'What is Sh'vilna'i doing between the canes and the
willows', or 'among the canes' means -that it is a secluded place, and that
one can therefore assume that she is there, in order to commit adultery.
2. ... 'Gafsah le'Imah' means - that by virtue of the fact that people tend
to refer to a Zonah (a harlot) as a 'Zonah bas Zonah', she is branding her
mother as being a Zonah.
(a) Zimri actually had five names. We have already explained that his real
name was 'Sh'lumiel ... ' and 'Zimri' because 'she'Na'aseh ke'Beitzah
ha'Muzeres'. He was called 'ben Salu' - because he either caused the
people to describe his family as a sinful one or he caused Hashem to examine
(b) He was also called 'Shaul' because he lent himself out for sin. And he
was called 'ben ha'Cana'anis' - because he behaved like the Cana'anim (who
were a highly immoral nation).
(a) When Rav Acha bar Huna asked Rav Sheishes whether a Kohen who served
be'Tum'ah is Chayav Miysah or not, he resolved the She'eilah from our
Mishnah - Kohen she'Shimesh be'Tum'ah, Ein Echav ha'Kohanim Mevi'in Oso
le'Beis-Din ... ', and if he was Chayav Miysah, why not just leave the
sinner to die at the at the hand of Hashem?
(b) We counter this argument however - by suggesting that if he was not
Chayav Miysah, how could we allow the Kohanim to kill him (the exact
opposite viewpoint [as we argued earlier])?
(c) We reconcile this theory with our Mishnah which rules ...
1. ... 'Mi she'Lakah ve'Shanah, Beis-Din Machnisin Oso le'Kipah' (even
though no Chiyuv Miysah is mentioned here) - by reestablishing the Mishnah
like Rebbi Yirmiyah Amar Resh Lakish, by Malkiyos of Chayvei Kerisus.
2. ... 'Gonev es ha'Kisva' - by reestablishing it by someone who steals a
'K'li Shareis', like Rav Yehudah (as we learned earlier).
3. ... 'ha'Mekalel es ha'Kosem' because of its similarity to Mevarech es
Hashem (as Tani Rav Yosef taught us earlier).
4. ... 'Bo'el es ha'Kutis' - because, as we learned above, Rav accepted Rav
Kahana's dream, that a Kohen she'Shimesh be'Tum'ah is indeed Chayav Miysah