ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 104
SANHEDRIN 104 (19 Teves) - dedicated to the memory of Hagaon Rav Yisrael
Avraham Abba ben Harav Chaim Binyamin Ze'ev Krieger ZT"L, Rav Kehilah in
Russia and later in Boston, MA, Talmid of Hagaon Rav Yehoshua Leib Diskin
and author of Yad Yisrael on the Rambam and many other Sefarim. Sponsored by
his son, Reb Chananel Benayahu Krieger (Yerushalayim).
(a) Rebbi Yochanan himself extols 'Legimah' even more than Rebbi Yossi ben
Kisma (whom he just quoted). When he describes it as 'Merachekes es
ha'Kerovim', he is referring to the above case of Amon and Mo'av, who failed
to provide Yisrael with food in the desert (as Rebbi Yossi ben Kisma
explained). He refers to Amon and Moav as 'Kerovim' - either because they
were relatives (sons of Lot, Avraham's nephew), or because of their
geographical location (seeing as even Midian, Avraham's son from Keturah,
who was a closer relation than they, is never referred to as a relative).
(b) When Rebbi Yochanan mentions 'Mekareves es ha'Rechokim, he is referring
to - the descendants of Yisro, who merited to sit in the Lishkas ha'Gazis,
because their grandfather invited Moshe to "come and eat bread".
(c) Yonadav ben Reichav (who sat in the Sanhedrin), was a descendant of the
Keinim, alias Yisro (as was Reichav).
(a) 'u'Me'alemes Einayim min ha'Resha'im' refers to Michah, as we explained
earlier. 'u'Mashreh Shechinah al Nevi'ei ha'Ba'al' applies to the friend of
Ido ha'Navi, who earned prophesy - by providing Ido with a meal.
(b) After luring Ido to Beis-Eil for a meal (against Hashem's express
orders) with a false prophesy, he prophesied - that Ido would not be buried
in the family sepulcher (and indeed, no sooner had Ido left Beis-Eil, that
he was killed by a lion).
(c) 've'Shigegaso Oleh Zadon' refers to Yonasan, David's close friend, to
whom Rav Yehudah Amar Rav ascribes the mistake of - sending David away
without giving him provisions for the journey.
(d) Besides the destruction of Nov Ir ha'Kohanim and the death of Do'eg
ha'Edomi (which would not have occurred if Yonasan had given David just two
loaves of bread), the third outcome of Yonasan's mistake was - that King
Shaul and his three sons (including himself) fell in battle.
(a) According to Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba, the Tana'im did not list Achaz
among the kings who have no portion in Olam ha'Ba, because 'he was placed
between two Tzadikim' - Yosam his father, and Chizkiyahu his son (and their
combined merits saved him).
(b) Rav Yosef - ascribes it to the fact that Achaz was ashamed of his sins
in the presence of Yeshayah.
(c) Hashem instructed Yeshayah to take his son Sha'ar Yashuv to the edge of
the upper pool by the path of 'S'dei Koves'. Rav Yosef Darshens 'Koves' in
two ways, one of them turns the 'Sin' into a 'Shin', to mean that he hid his
face ('Kavash Panav') before Yeshayah and left. The second explanation is -
that he placed a holed vessel (used to launder clothes) over his head, so
that Yeshayah should not recognize him and left.
(d) The Tana'im omitted Amon from the list - because of the merit of his son
(a) Chizkiyahu did not save his son Menasheh from appearing on the list of
kings who have no portion in Olam ha'Ba, because of the Pasuk in Ha'azinu
"ve'Ein mi'Yadi Matzil - from which we learn that (even though a son can
save his father from punishment), a father cannot save his son.
(b) By the same token - Avraham could not save Yishmael, nor could Yitzchak
(c) Now that we have discovered that a son can save his father from
Gehinom - we can retract from the two reasons given earlier why Achaz does
not appear on the list, attributing it instead to the fact that his son was
(d) We already learned all about Yehoyakim in 'ha'Nisrafin'. He is not
included in the list of those who have no portion in Olam ha'Ba - because he
already received his atonement by the fact that a. he was not buried, and b.
his skull was burned after his death.
(a) Chizkiyahu's complacency (in declaring that he had done what was good in
Hashem's eyes) caused him to ask for a sign that he would recover from his
illness (based on the principle 'Aveirah Goreres Aveirah').
(b) And as a result of his query - he received the visitors of Morach
Beladen ben Beladen and dined them.
(c) This resulted in the exile of his children, based on a statement of
Chizkiyah (Rebbi Yochanan's Rebbe), who said - that someone who dines
Nochrim and serves them, causes his children to go into exile.
(d) Those descendants of Chizkiyah (Daniel, Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah)
who went into exile - became servants of the King of Bavel.
(a) Chizkiyah was happy to greet the emissaries of the King of Bavel (who
brought the letters [which we discussed earlier and gifts]) and he showed
them his silver and gold, his perfumes and his oil stores, as well ''Beis
Nechosoh'', which, according to Rav, means that he allowed his wife to serve
them (placing her on display) - based on the word 'Menakeh', which means
'missing' (because woman was created from the limb that Hashem took from
Adam [see also Agados Maharsha]).
(b) According to Shmuel, ''Beis Nechosoh" means his treasury (or
spice-room), whereas according to Rebbi Yochanan, it means - finely honed
axes that could chop metal (as we explained earlier in the Perek).
(c) According to Rebbi Yochanan ...
1. ... as quoted by Rabah, Yisrael were smitten with the word "Eichah" -
whose numerical value is thirty-six, because they contravened the thirty-six
covenants in the Torah.
(d) According to Rabah Amar Rebbi Yochanan, the corollary between the Pasuk
in ve'Zos ha'Berachah "Vayashken Yisrael Batach *Badad* Ein Ya'akov el Eretz
Dagan ve'Tirosh Af Shamav Ya'arfu Tal" and "Eichah Yashvah *Badad*" is -
that Hashem intended to bless them with the former, but they chose the
2. ... Yisrael were smitten with the 'Alef Beis' (which comprise the first
letters of the Pesukim of four of the chapters of Eichah) - because they
transgressed the Torah which was given with the twenty-two letters of the
(a) Rabah Amar Rebbi Yochanan explains "ha'Ir Rabasi Am" to mean that they
would increase the birth-rate - by marrying a young girl to an older man,
and an older girl to a younger man.
(b) This is because when a young girl marries a young man, his seed is not
yet ready to germinate, and her womb is too small to develop his seed. The
application of the above method, where one of the partners was already more
mature, hastened the incidence of childbirth.
(c) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav interprets the phrase "Haysah ke'Almanah" to mean -
that Yerushalayim is compared to a widow whose husband has gone overseas and
is destined to return, but not to a real widow, whose husband will never
(d) Rabah Amar Rebbi Yochanan interprets "Sarasi ba'Medinos" to mean - that,
even when in exile, wherever Yisrael went they became leaders.
(a) The Beraisa relates a story of two Jewish captives walking in front of
their captor. They knew that the camel that preceded them was ...
1. ... blind in one eye - because it had only eaten grass from one side of
(b) The captives also - pointed out that their captor resembled the king's
cup-bearer so markedly, that he must be his (illegitimate) son.
2. ... carrying two flasks, one containing wine, the other, containing oil -
because the drops of liquid (which had obviously dripped from the flasks) on
one side had sunk into the ground, whilst those on the other side, where
still on the surface.
3. ... being led by two people, one a Yisrael, the other, a Nochri - because
the excrement in the middle of the path was obviously from a Nochri , whilst
that at the side was from a Yisrael (since Yisre'elim tend to be more modest
in their ways).
(c) His initial reaction to their assessment - was one of derision,
referring to them as 'a stubborn nation'.
(d) He discovered however, that it was totally accurate - after running to
catch up with the caravan in question, and seeing for himself that they were
right on every score.
(e) He reacted to this discovery - by taking them home and arranging a feast
in their honor, after which he danced before them. Then he praised the G-d
who had chosen the children of Avraham, and who imparted of His knowledge to
them, adding that wherever they went they became leaders. Then he set them
(a) Yirmiyah (in the Book of Eichah) uses the double expression "Bachoh
Sivkeh" - one for the destruction of the first Beis-Hamikdash, the other,
for the second.
(b) And when he said "ba'Laylah", he was referring to - the night mentioned
in Ki Sisa "va'Yivku ha'Am ba'Laylah ha'Hu" (referring to the night
following the spies return, the night of Tish'ah be'Av.
(c) Hashem responded to their weeping by telling them - that they had wept
crocodile tears (when they had no reason to weep). He would give them
something to weep about (the destruction of the two Batei-Mikdash and the
manifold disasters that would occur on Tish'ah-be'Av).
(d) "ba'Laylah" is also used because ...
1. ... whenever someone cries at night-time, his voice can be heard from
afar. The Navi is coming to teach us that - in spite of that, "Ein Menachem
Lah", there is nobody to comfort her (Yerushalayim).
2. ... when someone cries at night-time, all the stars and constellations
cry with him - and because when someone cries during the night, others
inevitably cry with him.
(a) It happened once, when a widow, a neighbor of Raban Gamliel, lost her
son, her continued weeping during the night caused Raban Gamliel to weep
with her, to the extent that his eyelids drooped and folded over into his
(b) When, the next day, Raban Gamliel's Talmidim saw what had happened -
they moved the widow to another area.
(c) Rabah Amar Rebbi Yochanan commented on the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Dim'asah al Lecheyah" - 'like a woman who cries for the husband
of her youth' (which she tends to do incessantly).
(d) Based on a Pasuk in Yeshayah, he also said that anyone who oppresses
Yisrael - will never tire in his efforts to do them harm.
2. ... "Hayu Tzarehah le'Rosh" - that whoever oppresses Yisrael becomes a
(a) When Rabah Amar Rebbi Yochanan, based on the Pasuk in Eichah "Lo
Aleichem Kol Ovrei Darech; Habitu u'Re'u, Im Yesh Mach'ov ke'Mach'ovi", said
'mi'Ka'an le'Kuvlana min ha'Torah', he meant - that when a person relates
his Tzaros to others, he should add the wish that the person to whom he is
relating it should not suffer the same experience. 'Kuvlana' either means
'crying out' or 'corresponding' (referring to when he says that the Tzarah
that he is suffering does not correspond to the listener).
(b) The Navi (representing the exiles of Yisrael) was speaking to - the
descendants of Moshe or to the ten tribes whom Nevuchadnetzar did not send
(c) When Rav Amram Amar Rav says 'As'uni ke'Ovrei al Das', he means - that
Hashem declared Yisrael to be worse than S'dom (see Agados Maharsha)?
(d) Even though Yisrael's sin was worse than that of S'dom, S'dom was
destroyed, and not Yisrael (or S'dom was punished directly by Hashem
["va'Hashem Himtir al S'dom"], whereas Yisrael was punished only through a
Sheli'ach ["Shalach Eish be'Atzmosai"]) - because Yisrael possessed the
quality of mercy (as the Pasuk writes in Eichah, "Yedei Nashim Yaldeihem,
Hayu Levaros Lamo ... " [where we see that they even shared their dead
children with each other in times of famine). Alternatively, it means that
their terrible suffering at the time of the Churban, compared to the utopian
lifestyle of the S'domians, rendered their overall suffering greater than
hat of S'dom (eliminating the question how Hashem could display such blatant
(e) We interpret the Pasuk "Silah Kol Abirai Hashem be'Kirbi" - to mean that
Hashem trampled Yisrael's bones, to destroy every limb, like one invalidates
an outdated coin, rendering it useless.
(a) "Patzu Alayich Pihem ... Asah Hashem Asher Zamam". Rabah Amar Rebbi
Yochanan explains the 'Pey' before the 'Ayin' - as being reminiscent of the
Meraglim, who reported (with their mouths) things that they had not seen
(with their eyes).
(b) And he explains the Pasuk "Ochlei Ami Achlu Lechem" to mean - that the
Nochrim were only satisfied when they had eaten Yisrael's (stolen) bread.
(c) According to Rav, the continuation of that Pasuk "Osi Lo Kara'u" refers
to the Dayanim, who caused this punishment with their perversion of justice.
Whereas according to Shmuel - it refers to the Melamdei Tinokos, who failed
to teach their wards diligently ("Oseh Meleches Hashem Remiyah").
(a) It was the Anshei K'nesses ha'Gedolah who compiled the list of the three
kings and four Hedyotos who lost their portions in Olam ha'Ba?
(b) The fourth king whom they wanted to include in the list is - Shlomoh
(c) When the image of David came before them and pleaded with them to
relent - they took no notice.
(d) They did the same - when fire descended from Heaven and began to 'lick
(e) They even ignored the Heavenly Voice, when it first pleaded with the
Chachamim to accept Shlomoh - who built the Beis-Hamikdash, and what's more,
He gave it priority (completing it in seven years) over his own palace
(which took him thirteen).
(a) The 'bas-Kol's final message, based on a Pasuk in Iyov, was - that
seeing as it was Hashem who issued Olam ha'Ba to those whom He thought
deserved it, surely the final decision lay with Him (and that it appears,
was indeed final, since Shlomoh does not appear on the list).
(b) But Hashem carried the matter still further, and the 'Dorshei Reshumos'
extrapolate from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Li Gilad, ve'Li Menasheh ... " - that
all those on the list (well, almost all) will receive a portion in Olam
ha'Ba after all.
(c) If "Li Gil'ad" pertains to Achav who fell at Ramos Gilad, and
"u'Menasheh " to King Menasheh ...
1. ... "ve'Efrayim Ma'oz Roshi" - to Yeravam (who belonged to the tribe of
(d) "Alei P'leshes Hisro'a'i", according to the Dorshei Reshumos - describes
a dialogue between Hashem and the angels. When the latter asked Hashem how
He could possibly give Olam ha'Ba to Do'eg and Achitofel, who hated David,
and did everything in their power to topple his kingdom (so what will He
tell David, who killed the P'lishti [Goli'as]), He replied that they could
leave it to Him to make it up ("le'Hisro'a'i" from the word 'Re'a' friend)
2. ... and "Yehudah Mechokeki" - to Achitofel (who belonged to the tribe of
3. ... "Mo'av Sir Rachatzi" - to Gechazi, who was punished when Na'aman
bathed in the River Yarden (see Agados Maharsha with regard to "Mo'av").
4. ... "Al Edom Ashlich Na'ali" - to Do'eg ha'Edomi.
(e) From the original list of seven, the Dorshei Reshumos omitted only -