ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafShabbos 36
(a) A trumpet, which is straight, is not fit for any other use.
Consequently, it is purely a 'K'li she'Melachto le'Isur', which is Muktzah;
whereas a Shofar, which has a curved shape, is fit to be used as a
receptacle (for a child to drink wine from), and is therefore not Muktzah
(according to Rebbi Yehudah, as we shall see shortly).
(b) We thought, at first, that the Beraisa that forbids even a Shofar to be
handled, must be speaking about a communal one, which is not used for
drinking - and the Beraisa which permits a Shofar, about a private one.
(c) This answer, however, is not acceptable, because a communal Shofar too,
is not only *fit* to be used for the same purpose, but *was* also used for
that - to give a poor child to drink (considering that it is the duty of
the community to feed the poor).
(d) Rebbi Nechemya holds that one may only move an object for the main
purpose for which it was designated. Consequently, a Shofar, which is
designated for blowing (and not for drinking), will be Muktzah.
(a) The Tana who permits one to handle even a trumpet, is Rebbi Shimon, who
does not, as a rule, hold of Muktzah.
(b) Since Rebbi Nechemya forbids the handling of a Shofar, as well as a
trumpet, why did he need to mention a trumpet at all, after telling us that
a Shofar is Asur? Is it not then obvious, that a trumpet will be Asur too?
(c) That is what forces us to say that the Shofar that he mentioned first
is not really a Shofar but a trumpet (and vice-versa) - and the Beraisa was
learnt in a place where they had already adopted the custom to switch their
names. Now we can say that the Tana prohibits the handling of a trumpet,
and even of a Shofar ('Lo Zu, Af Zu' - mentioning the less obvious first,
as is customary among Tana'im.
(d) After the switch, one would only be Yotze if he heard the blowing of a
'trumpet', but not of a 'Shofar' (so if a Ba'al Tokei'a said that he had
blown a Shofar one would not be Yotzei); alternatively, if an Am ha'Aretz
asked what to blow, we would have to tell him to blow a 'trumpet'.
(a) They also switched the names of an 'Aravah' (a willow that is Kasher
for Succos, and a 'Tzaftzefah' (one that is not, because it has a round
leaf and a white stem), and those of a 'Pesorah' (the original name for a
large table) and a 'Pesorta' (the name for a small table).
Hadran Alach, 'Bameh Madlikin'!
(b) The ramifications of that latter switch are concerning a business deal
in which someone agrees to sell his friend a Pesora or a Pesorta, who would
be obligated to provide the purchaser with what it is called *now*, and not
with what it was originally called.
(c) The Meses is surrounded by a thin layer of skin, and is therefore
Tereifah if a needle pierces the skin. But the Beis ha'Kosos is surrounded
by a double layer of skin, with the result that, should a needle pierce it,
it is only Terifah if it pierced *both layers*, but not if it pierced only
*one*. If someone should now ask a Rav about a needle which pierced a
'Huvlila', he would be referring (not to the Meses, as would formerly have
been the case, but) to the Beis ha'Kosos, in which case the animal might
now be Kasher. Whereas if he asked him about a needle which pierced a 'Bei
Kasi', the Rav would be forced to pronounce the animal Tereifah at all
(d) And the ramifications of the switch between Bavel and Bursif are in the
area of Gitin, where a Get which a Sheliach brings from Bavel was Kasher
without his needing to say 'be'Fanai Nichtav u'be'Fanai Nechtam') -
because the Sofrim in Bavel were experts in writing Gitin li'Shemah (with
the correct intentions), whilst in Bursif, they were not (and the Sheli'ach
who brought the Get had therefore to declare 'be'Fanai Nichtav' etc.).
After the switch, it was the Shli'ach from Bursif who did *not* need to say
'Be'Fanai Nichtav' etc., and the Shli'ach from Bavel who *did*.
(a) A Kirah is an oblong-shaped oven which has space for two pots inside
Why do Chazal prohibit Chazarah or even Shehiyah on a Kirah which is not
(Most of our ovens have the Din of a Kirah.)
(b) The Mishnah permits one to leave things to cook on a Kirah from Erev
Shabbos to Shabbos, when it has been lit with straw or stubble.
(c) 'Ketimah' is the placing of ashes on top of the burning coals, as a
sign that one does not want them to cool down (and is therefore not
interested in stoking them).
(d) Beis Hillel permit the placing, not only of *hot water* on to a Kirah
which is Gerufah and Ketumah, but also *other cooked foods*, and they also
permit one to return them on to the stove; whereas Beis Shamai forbids one
to leave other foods on the stove, because, in spite of the fact that it is
'Gerufah' or 'Ketumah', one may come to stoke the coals, or because it
looks like cooking, and presumably, that is also the reason why they forbid
one to return even water on to a Kirah.
(a) 'Lo Yiten Ad she'Yigrof' could mean 'Lo Yachzir', over which Beis
Shamai and Beis Hillel subsequently argue; but they will both agree that it
is permitted to *leave* things on a stove to cook, even when it is not
Alternatively, it could mean 'Lo Yashhu', meaning that Beis Hillel even
forbid one to *leave* something to cook on an oven which is not a 'Gerufah
u'Ketumah', and that, according to Beis Shamai, even *that* is forbidden.
(b) If we explain the Mishnah to mean specifically "Lo Yachzir', inferring
that leaving something to cook on the stove is permitted even when the
stove is not 'Gerufah u'Ketumah', then the author of the Mishnah will be
Chananya, who maintains that, once the pot has reached the stage of
'ke'Ma'achal ben Derasai' (one third cooked), one may leave it on the stove
to continue cooking.
(c) The problem with interpreting the Mishnah like this is that the Reisha
and the Seifa of the Mishnah are both telling us the same thing - namely,
that Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue over whether one may or may not,
return a pot to a Kirah which is 'Gerufah u'Ketumah' on Shabbos.
(d) The Gemara adds to the Mishnah, which now reads 'Kirah' etc., 'O Ad
she'Yiten es ha'Efer - Aval Lishhos, Mashhin Af Al Pi she'Eino Garuf etc.
u'Mah Hen Mashhin, Beis Shamai Omrin Chamin etc. ve'Hach Chazarah de'Amri
Lach La'av Divrei ha'Kol Hi, Ela Machlokes Beis Shamai u'Veis Hillel,
she'Beis Shamai Omrin' etc.