POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafShekalim 3
1) PUBLIC NEEDS
(a) The Bereisa (dealing with Chol HaMoed) offers an expanded list of
2) GRAVE MARKERS
(b) Other Halachos of Chol HaMoed are included in the Bereisa.
(c) Question: If these (e.g. irrigating or marking graves) were done
on the 15th of Adar, why are they repeated on Chol HaMoed?
(d) Answer: There were torrential rains which washed them out.
(e) Question: Why do the agents of Beis Din need to go out, again, on
the first of Nisan, regarding Kilayim?
(f) Answer: The crops were not then recognizable.
(a) Question: Whence the requirement to mark graves?
3) MISHNAH: THE ERADICATION OF KILAYIM OVER TIME
(b) Answer #1: The Pasuk in Vayikra implies that the Tumah must 'call
(c) Answer #2: The Pasuk in Yechezkel specifically refers to such
markers. (The references in the Pasuk are fully expounded:)
1. Etzem... Even bones without flesh must be marked.
(d) If one hovers directly above a single marked stone he is Tamei.
2. Adam... Skull and spine.
3. Uvana... Marking fixed stones (since rolling stones can lead
to false Tumah in their new place).
4. Etzlo... Mark the grave in a (proximate) Tahor place.
5. Tziyun... The obligation to mark graves.
(e) If there are *two* marked stones the area *between* is Tamei.
(f) If the intervening space has been plowed, then the two stones are
considered as separate (and the intervening space is Tahor).
(g) We do not mark the place where flesh is found.
1. This operates with the assumption that the flesh will
decompose to less than a KeZayis.
2. Question: But in the meantime the Taharos will be Tamei!?
3. Answer: The marking would create indefinite time of Tumah.
(a) [R. Yehudah] Originally, the found Kilayim was tossed in the
4) HEFKER BEIS DIN
(b) When unscrupulous people increased, they tossed it on the road.
(c) Eventually, the Beis Din made the whole field Hefker.
(a) The Bereisa explains the rationale for the increasing stringency
of the Mishnah (i.e. the unscrupulous kept on being pleased with
the eradication work done by the agents).
(b) Making the field ownerless employs Hefker Beis Din Hefker.
(c) Question: Whence that Hefker Beis Din Hefker?
(d) Answer: We see that Ezra employed Hefker Beis Din.
(e) Question: How do we know that such Hefker is exempt from Maaser?
(f) Answer: It can be seen in the Mishnah which restricts making a
leap year of a Shemitah (or post-Shemitah) year (however, the
produce of such an added month would be exempt from Maaser).
1. Question: Why not add to a post-Shemitah year?
(g) Question: The *Torah* obligates us to make a leap year (in order
to keep Nisan in the Spring), so an added month (even in a
Shemitah year) is truly part of the year, and this Mishnah does
not prove Hefker Beis Din!?
2. Answer: Not to increase the prohibition of Chadash.
3. The restriction of the Mishnah only applies until Rebbi
permitted vegetables brought from Chutz LaAretz.
4. The Bereisa taught that now that the years not KiTakanan,
adding a month is permitted.
5. The Beis Din of R. Gamliel made the eighth year a leap year.
(h) Rather, it is learned from the Din of one who placed his Gadish
on top of Leket.
1. Even Beis Hillel (who obligate the poor to take Maaser from
that which was Hefker only for them) would agree that the
bottom layer of such a pile is exempt from Maaseros.
2. This shows that the penalty imposed on such a person by Beis
Din does, indeed, make it ownerless.
5) MAKING SURE THE HALF-SHEKEL COIN IS AVAILABLE AND IS GIVEN
(a) From the 15th of Adar the money changers set up their shops.
6) HALF-SHEKEL FROM MINORS
(b) From the 25th of Adar they opened where they were even more
accessible to the Mikdash.
(c) From that point they would also begin to extract securities from
the homes of the delinquents.
(d) The securities were extracted (even from) the Leviim, Yisraelim,
converts, but not from women, Avadim, nor minors.
(e) Once a father begins to give the half-Shekel on behalf of a
minor, he must continue to do so each year.
(f) Securities are not taken from Kohanim owing to of Darkei Shalom.
(g) [R. Yehudah] Reported that any Kohen who donates is permitted to
(h) [R. Yochanan b. Zakai] He is obligated (they *erroneously*
inferred from the Pasuk that they must not participate in the
(a) We do not take security from minors, but we do demand the Shekel.
7) TAKING SECURITY FROM KOHANIM
(b) This must refer to a minor who has shown signs of maturity.
(c) We do not demand of a younger minor (but a security is taken only
from an older age). [There are two versions of the above steps;
the second version reads that the obligation starts at age 20.]
(a) The correct understanding of Darkei Shalom is Darech HaKavod.
8) THE PARTICIPATION OF KOHANIM IN THE HALF-SHEKEL
(a) The reasoning of R. Yochanan b. Zakai is the word Zeh (12).
9) THE PARTICIPATION OF LEVIIM IN THE HALF-SHEKEL
(b) The Chachamim would respond to R. Yehudah by pointing out that a
Korban Tzibur is not put to death.
1. Question: But this is not something to which R. Yehudah
(c) They, in turn, respond that once it is turned over to the Tzibur
it is reckoned as a Minchas Tzibur.
2. R. Yehudah responds that this is not a Minchas Yachid.
(a) Kol HaOver refers to one who passed through the sea (all the
tribes) or to one who was counted (and the Leviim were not
counted in the usual way).
(b) Each brings a support from the context of the Pasuk.