POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Shevuos 13
1) ATONEMENT WITHOUT "TESHUVAH"
(a) (Rebbi): Yom Kipur atones for all sins, whether or not a
person repented, with three exceptions: one who denies
the basis of Torah, one who ridicules Torah, and one who
annuls circumcision (he does not circumcise himself, or
he stretches his skin in order to appear uncircumcised);
1. For these three, Yom Kipur atones only if he
(b) Question: What is Rebbi's reason?
(c) (Beraisa): "Ki Davar Hash-m Bazah" is one who denies the
basis of Torah or ridicules Torah;
1. "V'Es Mitzvaso Hefar" is one who annuls
(d) Chachamim expound "Hikares" - he is cut off in this
world; "Tikares" - he is cut off in the world to come;
2. "Hikares Tikares" - he is cut off before Yom Kipur
and after Yom Kipur.
3. Suggestion: Perhaps this is even if he repented!
4. Rejection: "Avonah Bah" - this is only when he still
has (not repented from) his sin.
1. "Avonah Bah" - (this is only when he did not
repent), if he repented and died, death cleanses.
(e) Question: Since the end of the Mishnah is R. Yehudah,
also the beginning must be R. Yehudah!
1. (End of the Mishnah): It atones for Yisraelim,
Kohanim and an anointed Kohen alike.
(f) Answer (Rav Yosef): The Mishnah is Rebbi, he holds like
2. This is R. Yehudah's opinion!
(g) Question (Abaye): Were you exact in saying that Rebbi
holds like R. Yehudah, but we could not say the other
way, for R. Yehudah does not hold like Rebbi?
1. Or, could we also say that the Mishnah is R.
Yehudah, he holds like Rebbi;
(h) Answer (Rav Yosef): R. Yehudah does not hold like Rebbi.
i. You merely taught as one normally says, that
the Talmid (Rebbi) holds like his teacher (R.
1. (Beraisa): One might have thought that Yom Kipur
atones for people even if they do not repent:
(i) Contradiction (another unauthored Sifra): One might have
thought that Yom Kipur applies only to one who fasted,
blessed the day (Rashi; Tosfos - admits that the day has
Kedushah) and did not do Melachah;
i. Suggestion: Chatas and Asham only atone for one
who repented - we should say that also Yom
Kipur only atones for one who repented!
2. An unauthored Sifra (Beraisa that expounds a verse
of Vayikra) is R. Yehudah, and it says that Yom
Kipur only atones for one who repents!
ii. Rejection: Chatas and Asham do not atone for
one who sinned intentionally - Yom Kipur atones
even for intentional sins, we should say that
it even atones for one who did not repent!
iii. "Ach" - this is a distinction (there are people
Yom Kipur does not atone for, i.e. one who did
1. "Yom Kipurim Hu" teaches, it atones even for one who
did none of the above. (Presumably, such person did
(j) Answer #1 (Abaye): The first Sifra is like R. Yehudah,
the latter Sifra is like Rebbi.
(k) Answer #2 (Rava): Both are like Rebbi; the first Sifra
speaks of transgressions of (Kares of) Yom Kipur itself,
Rebbi admits that Yom Kipur does not atone for them
1. We must say thusly - if not, according to Rebbi, the
Kares written for eating or working on Yom Kipur
would never apply!
2. Objection: It would apply to one who transgressed at
night and died that night, for only the *day* of Yom
3. Correction: Rather, we must say thusly - if not, the
Kares for eating or working on the *day* of Yom
Kipur would never apply!
2) WHAT ATONES FOR THE KOHANIM?
4. Rejection: It would apply to one who died as he
transgressed (Tosfos - or died any time during Yom
Kipur), or one who transgressed as the day ended,
for there was no time for Yom Kipur to atone for
(a) (Mishnah): It atones for Yisraelim, Kohanim and an
anointed Kohen alike.
(b) Question: The Mishnah proceeds to explain the difference
(c) Answer (Rav Yehudah): The Mishnah says, they all get
atonement for *other* transgressions through the goat
that is sent (to Azazel);
1. It then explains that the bull atones for Tum'ah of
Kohanim, the inner goat atones for Tum'ah of
(d) Our Mishnah is R. Yehudah.
1. Version #1 - Rashi - (Beraisa - R. Yehudah):
"V'Chiper Es Mikdash ha'Kodesh" - (the Kohen Gadol
sprinkles the blood of the bull and inner goat to
atone for Teme'im who entered) the Kodesh
ha'Kodoshim; "Ohel Mo'ed" - (for Teme'im who
entered) the Heichal; "ha'Mizbe'ach" - (for Teme'im
who offered on) the Altar; "Yechaper" - (for
entering) the Chatzer of the Mikdash;
(e) Question: What is R. Shimon's reason?
2. Version #2 - Tosfos - (Beraisa - R. Yehudah):
"V'Chiper Es Mikdash ha'Kodesh" - (he sprinkles the
bloods between the staves of the Aron, in) the
Kodesh ha'Kodoshim; "Ohel Mo'ed" - (he sprinkles
towards the Paroches, while in) the Heichal; (he
also sprinkles on the inner) "Mizbe'ach"; "Yechaper"
- (he pours the leftover blood on the base of the
outer Altar, which is in) the Chatzer; (end of
i. The verse then says "Kohanim", "Am ha'Kahal"
(Yisraelim) and "Yechaper" (to include
Levi'im), to teach that the goat that is sent
atones equally for all of them.
3. R. Shimon says, just as the blood of the inner goat
atones for Yisraelim for Tum'ah of the Mikdash or
Kodshim, the blood of the bull atones for Kohanim
for Tum'ah of the Mikdash or Kodshim;
i. Just as the confession over the inner goat
atones for Yisraelim for other transgressions,
the confession over the bull atones for Kohanim
for other transgressions.
4. Question: Surely, the verse equated the atonement of
Kohanim and Yisraelim - how does R. Shimon explain
5. Answer: It teaches that they all get atonement for
Tum'ah and for other transgressions; however, they
get atonement through different sacrifices.
(f) Answer: "V'Lakach Es Shnei ha'Se'irim" - this equates the
inner goat and the goat that is sent;
1. Just as the inner goat does not atone for Kohanim
for Tum'ah (since it says "La'Am"), the goat that is
sent does not atone for Kohanim for other
(g) R. Yehudah says that the Torah equates the goats to teach
that they should have the same appearance, height and
(h) Question: (The following Beraisa suggests that if Kohanim
do not get atonement through the bull, they get no
atonement) - who is the Tana?
1. (Beraisa): "V'Shachat Es Se'ir ha'Chatas Asher
la'Am" - it does not atone for Kohanim;
(i) Answer #1 (R. Yirmeyah): The Tana is not R. Yehudah, for
he says that Kohanim get atonement through the goat that
i. Rather, they get atonement through the Kohen
2. Question: Regarding the bull it says "Asher Lo" -
this should teach that it does not atone for them!
i. If so, nothing would atone for them!
3. Answer #1: "Yechaper v'Al ha'Kohanim" - this proves
that they get atonement;
i. It is more reasonable to say that they get
atonement through the Kohen Gadol's bull, for
it atones for more than it says ("Lo", just
himself), it also atones for "Beiso" (the Kohen
4. Answer #2: Alternatively, we can learn from "Beis
Aharon Borechu Es Hash-m" - all the Kohanim are
ii. We do not find that the goat that is sent
atones for more than Yisraelim, it does not
atone for the Kohen Gadol's wife.
1. Question: So who is the Tana?
2. Answer (Rava): It is R. Shimon, who says that
Kohanim do not get atonement through the goat that