ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafSukah 55
SUKA 36-56 (End of Maseches) have been dedicated by the wife and daughters
of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of
Queens N.Y. Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will
long be remembered.
(a) The Beraisa (according to Abaye's interpretation) learns from "u've'Yom
Simchaschem ... u've'Roshei *Chodsheichem*" - that the Teki'os on every Rosh
Chodesh should be the same (i.e. always the same *one* set, and never
(b) Rav Ashi learns it from the plural form of "u've'*Roshei"* - implying
that we are speaking about a day which is a double Head (of the month and of
the year - i.e. Rosh Hashanah) and yet it is still called "Chodsheichem"
(which is written without a 'Yud') - in the singular, to teach us that the
Levi'im then sing only *one* Shir, and not *two*.
(c) Rav Acha bar Chanina is unable to reconcile this Beraisa with his
opinion (that the Levi'im sung the specific Shiur of *each* Musaf that was
brought). Consequently - the Levi'im always sang only *one* Shir, never
(a) Another Beraisa lists the Shir shel Yom that was sung on each day of
Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos. They sung ...
1. ... "Havu la'Hashem B'nei Eilim" (Kapitel 29) on the first day - because
"Kavod va'Oz" hints at the Simchah of the Beis Hasho'eivah", and the Pasuk
"Kol Hashem al ha'Mayim" is certainly a broad hint at the ceremony itself.
(b) They inverted the two halves of the Kapitel - because the first half
hints at the Mitzvos of Matnos Aniyim (as we just explained), and the season
of Matnos Aniyim falls due only *after* Sukos. Consequently, it made more
sense to sing that section closer to the end of Yom-Tov.
2. ... "ve'la'Rasha Amar, Mah Lecha le'Saper Chukai" on the second day - as
a warning about the futility of coming to the house of Hashem to celebrate
without having first done Teshuvah. "Z'vach l'Elokim Todah, *ve'Shalem*
l'Elokim *Nedarecha*" - is a reminder that, since they are already in the
Beis Hamikdash, they should not forget to bring the Nedarim and Nedavos that
they promised to bring during the year.
3. ... "Mi Yakum Li im Merei'im" (the second half of Kapitel 94) on the
third day - to demonstrate the greatness of the people in the second Beis
Hamikdash, who, in spite of their subjugation to the kings of Persia, Medes,
Greece and Rome, they nevertheless came to rejoice with the Simchah of their
King, Hashem in His house.
4. ... "Binu Bo'arim ba'Am" (the first half of Kapitel 94) on the fourth day
- to remind them that now was the season of Matnos Aniyim, and that they
should not be lax in this Mitzvah, thinking that nobody knows anyway,
because Hashem knows everything.
(c) They sang ...
1. ... "Hasirosi mi'Sevel Shichmo" on the fifth day - because of the
consolation that it contains in the phrase "ba'Tzarah Karasa va'Achaltzeka",
meaning that if we behave as we should, Hashem will deliver us from all
troubles. In addition, it hints there, at the water for which we pray on
Sukos (in the Pasuk "Evchancha al Mei Merivah"), to assure us that if we
stand up to Hashem's tests, He will answer our prayers and provide us with
water. Finally, the chapter ends with an avalanche of Berachos, which
acompanies a good rain-season.
(d) The Mishnah in Pirkei Avos says that - on every Motza'ei ha'Chag, there
is an increase in people who die as a result of pestilence, because they
stole (i.e. failed to give) Matnos Aniyim properly.
2. ... "Yimotu Kol Mosdei Aretz" on the sixth day - because, as we have
already explained, the season of Matnot Aniyim is imminent, and it is from
the Pasuk in this chapter "Ani va'Rash Hatzdiku" that we derive the
obligation to give the poor the benefit of the doubt in all areas of Matnos
Aniyim. And then, from the continuation of the Pasuk, that those who are
foolish and fail to do this are Chayav Misah bi'Yedei Shamayim.
(a) Rav Safra's Si'man 'H.u.m.*be*.h.i' - follows the pattern that we just
explained, where we postpone "Binu" (the first half of Kapitel 94) to the
*fourth* day (after they have sung the second half of the Kapitel); whereas
that of Rav Papa 'H.u.m.ha.*b*.i' - postpones "Binu" still further (to the
Having conclusively proved Rav Acha bar Chanina wrong, we now have to
explain his proof from the Pasuk and from the Beraisa (which says that the
more Musafin that are brought, the more one adds to the Shir).
(b) The significance of the Si'man 'Amvuha de'Safra' (meaning groups of
people walking in the alleyway where the children's Rebbe lives) - is to
help us to remember that it is Rav Safra, who gives the Si'man
(c) If Shabbos fell on one of these days - it was the last Shir, that of
"Yimotu", that was omitted.
(d) We prove from this Beraisa too - that on a day when two Musafin were
brought, they sang only *one* Shir, and not *two* (another disproof against
Rav Acha bar Chanina.
1. Ravina explains this to mean 'Ma'arichin bi'Teki'os' - that they extended
the length of the Teki'os for each Musaf.
2. Rav Acha (quoted by the Rabbanan of Caesaria) explains it to mean 'Marbin
be'Tok'in' - that they added trumpeters according to the number of Musafin.
(a) The Gemara queries the order of Leining on Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos in Chutz
la'Aretz, where the second day is a Safek - nevertheless, it is not possible
to read on the second day "u'va'Yom ha'Sheini" (implying that it is Chol
ha'Mo'ed), because it is degrading for Yom-Tov to call it Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(b) Abaye maintains that it is the *second* day that is omitted - meaning
that on the first day of Chol ha'Mo'ed, one Leins "u'va'Yom ha'Shelishi" and
so on, in which case, "u'va'Yom ha'Sheini" is *not* Leined at all (whereas
"u'va'Yom ha'Shelishi" *is*).
(c) Rava says that - on the first day of Chol ha'Mo'ed, we Lein "u'va'Yom
ha'Sheini". Consequently, on the *seventh* day, we will Lein "u'va'Yom
ha'Shishi", and it is "u'va'Yom *ha'Shevi'i*" (which one cannot mention on
Shemini Atzeres, because it is a degradation of Yom-Tov (as we explained
above) which is omitted.
(d) We prove Rava's opinion from the Beraisa of the Shir that they sang on
Chol ha'Mo'ed - where we saw that, when Shabbos fell on Chol ha'Mo'ed, it
was "Yimotu" (the last Shir) which was omitted, and not whichever one
(a) All twenty-four groups of Kohanim served in the Beis Hamikdash
throughout Yom-Tov. They all participated in all the Avodos that were
performed because of Yom-Tov.
(b) On the first day of Sukos, after the first sixteen groups had brought
the thirteen bulls, the two rams and the goat, *six* of the eight remaining
groups brought *two* lambs each, and the remaining *two*, one each.
(c) On the second day, after the first fifteen groups had distributed the
twelve bulls, the two rams and the goat - of the nine remaining groups,
*five* brought *two* lambs each, and the remaining *four*, *one*.
(d) On the seventh day of Sukos - there were seven bulls, two rams, one goat
and fourteen lambs - twenty-four animals all in all, one animal per group.
(a) On Shemini Atzeres - they brought one bull, one ram and seven lambs.
(b) They determined who brought which animals then - by making a new Payas.
(c) All the groups vied with each other to bring - the bulls, because they
were the biggest animals.
(d) Almost all the groups merited to bring a bull *three* times round during
Sukos. Only *two* groups brought it only *twice*.
(a) According to Rebbi, all twenty-four groups participated in the Payas as
to who should bring the bull on Shemini Atzeres; whereas according to the
Rabbanan, it was one of the two groups who only brought the bulls twice
during Sukos, who brought it.
(b) They determined which of those two groups should bring it - by means of
(c) The Beraisa says that all the groups brought three bulls during Sukos,
except for two, who only brought two. The author might be Rebbi, in which
case, the Tana is implying that nobody received a third turn, but that they
all participated in the new Payas on Shemini Atzeres. If the author is the
Rabbanan - the Tana is coming to teach us that they brought the bulls in
rotation i.e. no group that brought the bulls one day, would bring them the
(a) The seventy bulls on Sukos represent - the seventy nations of the world,
and the one bull on Shemini Atzeres - K'lal Yisrael.
(b) Rebbi Elazar illustrates this with a parable - to a king, who asked his
servents to prepare a big banquet. As the banquet was drawing to a close, he
asked his son to pepare for him a small banquet, in order to enjoy the
pleasure of his company (it appears that from the initial banquet, it was
from the food that he derived pleasure, and not from the company of his
servants, whereas by the second banquet, he derived pleasure from the
company of his son, and not from the food). Note: The Medrash adds that the
purpose of the diminishing bulls is to demonstrate that the nations of the
world will diminish, until it is only Yisrael who remains (see Agados
(c) Rebbi Yochanan describes the stupidity of the Nochrim - who in
destroying the Beis Hamikdash, cut their own nose to spite their face, since
as long as it stood, it atoned for them, too (as is evident from this
(a) Three times a year, all the groups of Kohanim received an equal portion
in the Eimurim of the Korbanos, and of the Lechem ha'Panim - on Pesach,
Shavu'os and Sukos (since that is when they were all expected to serve in
the Beis Hamikdash).
(b) When Shavu'os fell on Shabbos, they would say to each Kohen 'Here is
Matzah, here is Chametz' - referring to the Lechem ha'Panim (which was not
permitted to be Chametz), and the Sh'tei ha'Lechem, respectively.
(c) They did this - to make it clear to each Kohen that he was receiving a
piece of each 'Korban', since it is forbidden for a Kohen to exchange part
of one Korban for another.
(d) The regular group of Kohanim whose week of duty fell due on Yom-Tov -
merited all the regular Avodos that were not connected with Yom-Tov.
(a) 'Eimurei ha'Regalim' would usually refer to the various fat-pieces that
went on the Mizbe'ach to be burned.
(b) It cannot mean that here - seeing as those Eimurin belong to Hashem, and
would not go to the Kohanim.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk in Shoftim ...
1. ... "u'Va be'Chol Avas Nafsho" - that there are occasions when the
Kohanim are permitted to serve, even when it is not the turn of their group
(d) We learn the Din of *Kehunah* from there, in spite of the fact that the
Torah specifically writes "ve'Chi Yavo ha'*Levi*" - because this is one of
the twenty-four places in Tenach where Kohanim are referred to a "Levi'im".
2. ... "me'Achad She'arecha" - that the previous Halachah is confined to
those occasions when all Yisrael come into one gate (i.e. one town,
Yerushalayim), and that is on Yom-Tov.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "la'Kohen ha'Makriv Osah, Lo Sihyeh" - that any
Kohen who is eligible to bring any Korban on the Mizbe'ach, receives a
portion of that Korban when it is distributed (e.g. the goat of a Chatas, or
the chest and the right calf of a Shelamim).
(b) We also need the Pasuk "Cheilek ke'Cheilek Yocheilu" - to teach us that
any Kohen from any group (who is eligible to the Avodah) receives a portion
of the Lechem ha'Panim on Yom-Tov (since it is written immediately after the
pasuk "u'Va be'Chol Avas Nafsho, which we just established on Yom-Tov), even
though no Avodah is performed with them (seeing as they were baked the week
(c) And we learn from the Pasuk there "Levad Mimkarav al ha'Avos" - that
during the remainder of the year, when the Avos (David and Shmuel) organized
that the groups sold to each other their rights in the other weeks that were
*not* their's against the weeks that *were*, "Cheilek ke'Cheilek Yocheilun"
did not apply (but only the Kohanim whose turn it was to serve would to
receive a portion in the Lechem ha'Panim).