POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafTa'anis 22
TA'ANIS 21, 22 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi
publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael
1) MERITOROUS PEOPLE
(a) Rava was disheartened because Abaye received Divine
greetings more frequently than he.
2) CROP-PLAGUE AND LOCUSTS
1. He was told that his own merit protected the entire
(b) R. Beruka Chaza'a would frequently be joined by Eliyahu
ha'Navi. One day in the market he asked him if there was
anyone present who was a Ben Olam ha'Ba and was told that
(c) Later, Eliyahu pointed out a man wearing black
(non-Jewish) shoes and no tzitzis.
(d) R. Beruka asked the man his profession, and was told to
(e) The next day, the man told him that he was a jailer, and
he imprisoned men and women separately, placing his bed
1. He would endanger himself to help a Jewish girl who
was in danger from her captors.
(f) Meanwhile, two other people happened along, and Eliyahu
said that they too were Bnei Olam ha'Ba.
2. One betrothed Jewish girl in particular was in danger.
3. He put wine lees on her skirt and told the men that
she was a Niddah.
4. He told R. Beruka that he dressed as a non-Jew so that
he could pass amongst them undetected and learn of
any decrees against the Jews in advance so as to
warn them to pray.
5. That was why he first told R. Beruka to return
tomorrow - as he had just learned of a decree and
had to hurry to warn them.
1. R. Beruka asked them their profession, and they
replied that they were jesters who would cheer up
unhappy people and smooth over disputes between
(a) The Mishnah said that the procedure of fasting and Shofar
is done in all towns if one town experiences plague on
the crops, locusts, or wild animals.
3) ANIMALS ON THE RAMPAGE
(b) (R. Akiva) this is true even for the slightest amount of
plague; and for locusts, even if only one was seen in
(a) (Beraisa) The crisis with wild animals spoken of refers
to where they were on the rampage; otherwise, the
procedure is not done.
4) FOREIGN ARMIES PASSING THROUGH
1. "On the rampage" is defined as when they are seen in
the town, but not if they are seen in the wild.
(b) Question: It first said that it is only on the rampage if
it appears in the town, implying regardless of the time
of day; yet it then says that it is only on the rampage
if seen by day!?
2. It is also defined as when they are seen by day, but
not when they are seen by night.
3. If an animal saw two people and chased them, it is
considered to be on the rampage, but not if it fled.
4. If it killed two people and ate one, it is considered
to be on the rampage, but not if it ate both (in
which case it is merely hungry).
5. If it climbed into a house and grabbed a baby from its
crib, it is considered to be on the rampage.
(c) Answer: It means that if it is seen in the town, it is
considered on the rampage, but only if seen by day,
whereas if seen by night or in the wild even by day it is
not on the rampage.
(d) Question: It said that if it chased the people, it is on
the rampage, implying that if it stood still, it isn't;
yet then it says that if it flees, it is not on the
rampage, implying that if it stood still, it is!?
(e) Answer: The first refers to a field near marshland; it
feels secure on home turf, and standing still does not
signify that it is dangerous; the second rule refers to
where it is not near marshland.
(f) Question: The Beraisa said that it is only on the rampage
if it killed two people and ate one of them, but the
previous rule said that it is on the rampage if it just
(g) Answer: This rule refers to where it is in its marshland
territory, and only killing them is a sign that it is
(h) Question: The Beraisa said that if it climbed into a
house and grabbed a baby from its crib, it is considered
to be on the rampage - but isn't this obvious?
(i) Answer: It refers to a hunter's shack, which is not
perceived as proper human habitation.
(a) The Mishnah said that the procedure is done in all towns
if one town encounters a foreign army.
(b) (Beraisa) This even includes an army that is travelling
in peace to fight a different country.
1. For there was no better such example that the army of
Pharaoh-Necho, and it brought Yoshiyahu to disaster.
5) CROP PLAGUE
2. Pharaoh-Necho said that he didn't intend to fight the
Jews and warned Yoshiyahu against starting trouble.
3. Yoshiyahu reasoned that since Pharaoh-Necho was
trusting in idols, he could defeat him.
4. He was pierced with arrows like a sieve.
5. Yoshiyahu was punished for not consulting Yirmiyahu.
6. Yoshiyahu didn't want to let them through as the Pasuk
says that no sword shall pass through Eretz Yisrael,
which must be referring to armies passing through in
peace, as active warfare has already been ruled out
by a different Pasuk.
7. Yoshiyahu's mistake was that his people were not as
righteous as he thought (to merit being victorious).
8. When he was dying, Yirmiyahu saw him murmuring, and
worried that his pain was causing him to say
9. Bending down, he heard Yoshiyahu accepting the justice
of Hashem's punishment, and he praised him.
(a) The Mishnah said that a fast was decreed because
crop-plague in the amount of an ovenfull was seen in
(b) Question: Does this mean an oven full of produce, or the
lesser amount of an oven's worth of bread?
(c) Answer: A Beraisa speaks of an oven's mouth full, which
refers to bread, placed on shelves near the opening.
(d) Question: Does this mean a row of bread surrounding the
opening, or reaching from the base until the opening?
(e) Answer: Teyku.
(a) The Mishnah said that a fast was once decreed because
wolves ate two children.
7) INDIVIDUAL FASTS
(b) It once happened that wolves swallowed two babies whole
and excreted them.
(c) The Chachamim ruled that the flesh (which was digested)
would not cause Tum'ah, but the bones would.
(a) (Beraisa) Whether a city is surrounded by non-Jews or a
flooded river, or a ship is storm-tossed, or an
individual is running from non-Jews or robbers or a demon
possession, a person may inflict a fast upon himself.
(b) (R. Yosi) A person may not fast, in case in his weakened
state he requires the support of others and they do not
1. His reason is that the Pasuk says that man became a
living soul, which is a command to keep our soul
(a) The Mishnah stated that Shimon ha'Teimani said that the
procedure is also done on Shabbos in the event of
pestilence, but the Chachamim disagreed.
9) OVERABUNDANT RAIN
(b) Question: Did they only disagree about doing it on
Shabbos, or did they hold that it should never be done?
(c) Answer: In a Beraisa, the Tana Kama states that it is
done even on Shabbos.
(d) (R. Chanan b. Pitam citing R. Akiva) It is never done for
(a) Question: The Mishnah said that the procedure is done to
protect from all forms of suffering except an
overabundance of rain - why?
(b) Answer (R. Yochanan): As we don't pray about too much of
a good thing.
1. This is learned from a Pasuk in which Hashem promises
too much Berachah.
(c) (Rami bar Rav) In Bavel, however, they do pray about too
1. Likewise, a Beraisa states that in a rainy year, the
men of the Mishmar would tell the men of the Maimad
to pray on behalf of those in Bavel that their
houses shouldn't drown them.
(d) Question: At what point do we pray that the rain should
(e) Answer (R. Eliezer): When a person can stand on the high
stone of Keren Afel and dip his feet in the water (i.e.
1. Question: A Beraisa speaks instead of dipping his
2. Answer: When you can dip your feet in, you can also
bend and dip your hands in.
3. (Rabah bar Chanah) Standing on Keren Afel, a merchant
riding a camel and brandishing a spear looks like a