ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafTa'anis 6
TA'ANIS 6 & 7 - dedicated by Dovid and Zahava Rubner of Petach Tikva l'Iluy
Nishmas his late mother, Mrs. Seren Rubner. May Hashem grant all of her
offspring with joy, fulfillment, and all that they need!
(a) "Yoreh" means teaches. The early rain in Mar-cheshvan 'teaches' people -
to repair their roofs, take their fruit from the field into the house, and
to do whatever else needs doing before the winter sets in.
(b) It can also mean to water, because it waters the earth right down to
the depths. It also has connotation - of coming down gently.
(c) We initially think that "Yoreh" cannot have a connotation of shooting,
to say that if we fail to keep Torah and Mitzvos, it will descend in a
destructive manner, to destroy the fruit that is still on the trees, the
plants and the trees - because it is compared to Malkosh, which definitely
has connotations of B'rachah.
(d) "Malkosh" is the acronym of 'Melilos ve'Kashin' (the ears and the
stalks' - meaning that the Malkosh descends upon the grain when it has
already grown to the stage of ears and stalks and helps it to ripen.
(a) We then suggest that "Malkosh" could be the acronym of 'Mal' (to cut
down) and 'Kash' (hard). It might cut down the houses and the trees, and it
might be hard on the corn that has already grown.
(b) We finally conclude that our starting point is "Yoreh" (and not
"Malkosh"). The source that convinces us that "Yoreh" can only be for a
Berachah, is the Pasuk in Yoel, the end of which the Tana quoted in our
Mishnah - " ... Ki Nasan Lachem *es ha'Moreh li'Tzedakah* ... Moreh
(c) One particular B'rachah of Malkosh is that it fills the pits with water.
It is also a potential curse inasmuch as it is 'Ma'aleh Saka'in' - meaning
that it brings with it a certain type of locust.
(a) We learn that the Yoreh does not occur in Kislev from the words "be'Ito
(Yoreh u')Malkosh" - which teaches us that just as the Malkosh falls in the
ideal time (in Nisan), so too, does the Yoreh, fall in the ideal time (i.e.
Mar-cheshvan, and not Kislev).
(b) We now explain "Malkosh" as the acronym of '*Mal* *Kash*yusan shel
Yisrael' - which means that, when the rain does not come when it is due, it
causes Yisrael to soften their hearts, they fast and do Teshuvah, and they
(c) A second acronym is 'she'Me*mal*ei Tevu'ah be'*Kash*eha' - meaning that
it fills the stalks (which have already grown by then) with grain.
(d) The third acronym of "Malkosh" - is 'Melilos (ears of corn) ve'Kashin'
(stalks), because the Malkosh causes them to attain their full ripeness.
(a) The Yoreh consists of three rainfalls. According to Rebbi Meir, the
first occurs on the third of Mar-Cheshvan, the second, on the seventh - and
the third, on the seventeenth.
(b) According to Rebbi Yehudah, the first and second falls correspond to the
second and third falls of Rebbi Meir. Likewise, the first and second falls
according to Rebbi Yossi, correspond to the second and third falls of Rebbi
Yehudah. The third fall ...
(c) According to Rebbi Yossi - the Yoreh (which refers to the third
rainfall) occurs on Rosh Chodesh Kisleiv.
- ... according to Rebbi Yehudah - occurs on the twenty-third of Mar-Cheshvan.
- ... according to Rebbi Yossi - on Rosh Chodesh Kislev.
(d) According to Rebbi Yossi - the Yechidim (the Gedolei ha'Dor) begin
fasting (if there is no rain) on Rosh-Chodesh Kislev.
(a) Rav Chisda rules like Rebbi Yossi. Others quote Rav Chisda as ruling
like Raban Gamliel (in a second Beraisa). According to the Tana Kama of that
Beraisa, one asks for rain on the *third* of Mar-Cheshvan - according to
Raban Gamliel, on the *seventh*.
(b) In yet a third Beraisa, Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says that if rain fell
for seven consecutive days, that will cover either the first and second fall
of the Yoreh, or the second and third - like Rebbi Yossi (because he is the
only Tana who dates give a time-span of seven days (inclusive of both days
between the seventeenth and the twenty-third of Mar-Cheshvan, but exclusive
of the latter between the twenty-third and Rosh Chodesh Kislev).
(c) The function of ...
(d) According to Rebbi Zeira, the *second* fall marked the time-period of
Nedarim - meaning that someone who made a vow not to have a certain benefit
until the rain season, was permitted to derive that benefit until the second
rainfall of the Yoreh.
- ... the *first* of the three falls of the Yoreh - is that is when one begins to ask for rain.
- ... the *third* fall - is that is when one begins to fast.
(a) According to Rav Z'vid, the second fall of the Yoreh marked olives.
What he means is the Mishnah in Pei'ah - which permits anyone to take the
olives of Pei'ah that are left on the trees, from the second rain and
onwards (see also Mishnah Shevi'is, Perek 9, Mishnah 7).
(b) Everyone is permitted to take Leket, Shikchah and Pei'ah from the corn
from the time the Nemushos have been. According to Rebbi Yochanan, this
means old men with walking-sticks. According to Resh Lakish - it means after
the poor have been with their children, who collect whatever their parents
(c) They are permitted to take Peret and Olelos (single grapes that fall and
incomplete clusters of grapes, respectively) - when the poor have collected
from the field twice.
(a) According to Rav Papa, the second fall of Yoreh marked the turning-point
with regard to traversing 'Shevilei ha'Reshus' - referring to the Takanah of
Yehoshua bin Nun, granting the right to take short-cuts, via pathways that
passed through other people's fields. This was permitted up until the second
rain-fall, when the produce had already begun to grow, and people passing
through one's field would be likely to cause the owner damage.
(b) According to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, it marks the Bi'ur of fruit in
the Sh'mitah-year - i.e. straw and stubble.
(c) 'Revi'ah' - refers to the act of intimacy - because the rain is intimate
with the ground, causing the fruit to grow. That is what Rav Yehudah mean
when he said 'Mitra Ba'alah de'Ar'a' - 'the rain is the husband of the
(d) The amount of rain that needs to fall in order not to have to fast ...
1. ... during the first Revi'ah - is enough to penetrate the earth to a
depth of one Tefach (four inches - ten centimeters) and make it soggy.
2. ... during the second Revi'ah - is sufficient for the earth to become so
wet, that one is able to shape the lid of a barrel with it.
(a) When Rav Chisda said that rain that comes before 've'Atzar' is not
included in "ve'Atzar" - he meant that if it rained before the time of
'K'ri'as Shema', the curse of "ve'Atzar es ha'Shamayim ... " has been
(b) Abaye qualifies Rav Chisda's statement - by restricting it to the night-
time, but early morning rain is ineffective, as Rav Yehudah bar Yitzchak
(c) Rav Yehudah bar Yitzchak said that morning clouds do not portend
blessing. Abaye reconciles this with the folk-saying that if the rain is
coming down in the early morning, then the grain-merchant may as well fold
his sack and go to sleep on it (because, due to the abundance of rain,
everyone will be house-bound, and he will not be able to sell his grain
anyway) - because the latter speaks when there are heavy rain-clouds in the
sky, whereas he (Abaye) is speaking about rain that results from light
clouds (even these, are sufficient to dispel "ve'Atzar" in the evening).
(a) A year in which Teives is *dry*, is a good year, says Rav Yehudah,
because the paths are dry for the Talmidim to go to Yeshivah (though it is
not clear why specifically Teives). The Gemara's second reason for this - is
because then, the produce will not be smitten by drought.
(b) When Rav Chisda said that if *rain* muddies the paths in Teives, it is a
sign of a good year - he was speaking when it had not rained earlier,
whereas Rav Yehudah is speaking when it *had* (though it is unclear how this
ties up with the *first* reason in a.).
(c) Rav Chisda says that if rain fell on one area but not on another, this
is not included in the curse of "ve'Atztar" (because the one can then assist
the other). We reconcile this with the statement of Rav Yehudah Amar Rav,
who, explaining a Pasuk in Amos, says that if one section of land receives
rain and not the other, both suffer "ve'Atzar" - by establishing the latter,
when it rained heavily on that section, in effect, providing it with a
double portion of rain and swamping it out; whereas Rav Chisda speaks when
the section that received rain had a regular rainfall.
(d) Rava support this answer from the expression used by Amos "Chalakah
Achas *Timatar*" (the Pasuk to which Rav Yehudah Amar Rav refers) - implying
that it turns into a swamp.
(a) When Rebbi Avahu says that one recites a Berachah over rain when 'the
Chasan goes out to meet the Kalah' - he means that the rain falls with such
velocity that, as one drop falls to the ground, the previous drop jumps up
to meet it (or that so much water falls that the rain in the markets form
rivulets which flow into each other).
(b) According to Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, the Berachah reads 'Modim Anachnu
Lach ... al Kol Tipah she'Horadta Lanu' - to which Rebbi Yochanan added 'Ilu
Finu Malei Shirah ka'Yom ... ve'Yamlichu es Shimcha Malkeinu" (from 'Nishmas
Kol Chai' that we say on Shabbos morning).
(c) We initially thought that the Berachah concludes "Baruch ... Rov
ha'Hoda'os'. In fact, it concludes 'Baruch ... be'Rov ha'Hoda'os, Keil
ha'Hoda'os' (this is Rashi's text).
(d) 'Rov ha'Hoda'os' - means 'with an abundance of thanks', although
originally, we thought it meant 'with most of the thanks'.